Authors:
J. Kristóf University of Veszprém Department of Analytical Chemistry H-8201 Veszprém P.O. Box 158 Hungary H-8201 Veszprém P.O. Box 158 Hungary

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E. Horváth Hungarian Academy of Sciences Research Group for Analytical Chemistry H-8201 Veszprém P.O. Box 158 Hungary H-8201 Veszprém P.O. Box 158 Hungary

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R. Frost Queensland University of Technology Centre for Instrumental and Developmental Chemistry 2 George Street G.P.O. Box 2434 Brisbane Q 4001 Australia 2 George Street G.P.O. Box 2434 Brisbane Q 4001 Australia

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J. Kloprogge Queensland University of Technology Centre for Instrumental and Developmental Chemistry 2 George Street G.P.O. Box 2434 Brisbane Q 4001 Australia 2 George Street G.P.O. Box 2434 Brisbane Q 4001 Australia

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Abstract  

The thermal behaviour of fully and partially expanded kaolinites intercalated with formamide has been investigated in nitrogen atmosphere under quasi-isothermal heating conditions at a constant, pre-set decomposition rate of 0.20 mg min–1 . With this technique it is possible to distinguish between loosely bonded (surface bonded) and strongly bonded (intercalated) formamide. Loosely bonded formamide is liberated in an equilibrium reaction under quasi-isothermal conditions at 118°C, while the strongly bonded (intercalated) portion is lost in an equilibrium, but non-isothermal process between 130 and 200°C. The presence of water in the intercalation solution can influence the amount of adsorbed formamide, but has no effect on the amount of the intercalated reagent. When the kaolinite is fully expanded, the amount of formamide hydrogen bonded to the inner surface of the mineral is 0.25 mol formamide/mol inner surface OH group. While the amount of surface bonded formamide is decreasing with time, no change can be observed in the amount of the intercalated reagent. With this technique the mass loss stages belonging to adsorbed and intercalated formamide can be resolved thereby providing a complex containing only one type of bonded (intercalated) formamide.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1969
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
24
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1388-6150 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2926 (Online)

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