The formation of inclusion complexes between amoxicillin (AMPC) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was investigated
by isothermal microcalorimetry and molecular dynamics simulation to evaluate the inhibitory effects on the degradation of
AMPC in aqueous solutions at various pH. The process depended significantly on the ionic species of AMPC in the solution.
In a strong acid solution, cationic AMPC and HPCD formed two different types of inclusion complexes with a 1:1 stoichiometry:
the first-type had a high association constant K1 of 4.0-8.0103 M-1 and included the penam ring of AMPC in the HPCD cavity (Mode I), while the second-type with a K2 of 1.0103 M-1 contained the phenyl group of AMPC (Mode II). Furthermore, a complex with a 1:2 (AMPC:HPCD) stoichiometry was realized in
a two-step reaction and was characterized by a smaller K1:2of 4.0102 M-1 and larger negative enthalpy and entropy changes than the complexes with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Since the β-lactam ring of
AMPC could be protected by inclusion with HPCD in the 1:2 complex and Mode I of 1:1 complexes, the degradation of AMPC in
the presence of HPCD was approximately four times slower than in its absence at pH 1.2 and 37C. In weak acid and neutral
solutions, zwitterionic AMPC and HPCD formed only one type of inclusion complex with a 1:1 stoichiometry, where the phenyl
group was included (Mode II). AMPC was very stable in these solutions (t1/2=226 h at pH=6.0) and there is little significant difference in the degradation rate between complexed AMPC and uncomplexed
AMPC. Thus, the results indicated that the inclusion complex of AMPC with HPCD, effectively increasing the stability of AMPC
in a strong acidic solution like that the stomach, would be useful for eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection and as a drug delivery system.