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  • 1 Univ. de Alcalá Alcalá de Henares Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmaceutica, Facultad de Farmacia 28871 Madrid Spain
  • | 2 Univ. di Firenze Polo Scientifico Sesto Fiorentino 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze Italy
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Abstract  

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), supported by hot stage microscopy, IR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry, was used to investigate the characteristics of the solid phases of mefenamic, niflumic, and flufenamic acids and of paracetamol, before and after equilibration with saturated solutions in different solvents. Mixtures of Lewis base (dioxane and ethyl acetate) and amphiprotic solvents (ethanol and water) were prepared for evaluating the influence of both nature and polarity of the solvents. Solid-state analysis performed on the original samples (commercial products) made it possible to establish that paracetamol, mefenamic acid and flufenamic acid were in their respective Form I. No polymorphic modifications are known for niflumic acid. Paracetamol, niflumic and mefenamic acids did not show any change after equilibration with the various solvents or solvent mixtures, regardless of their different chemical nature. In contrast, DSC, IR and X-ray analyses revealed the partial recrystallization of flufenamic acid into its polymorphic Form III in solid phases at equilibrium with ethanol, ethyl acetate and their blends, as well as in dioxane-water mixtures containing 30 to 100% dioxane and in ethanol-water mixtures with a water content less than 50%.