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  • 1 University of Cape Town Department of Chemistry Rondebosch 7701 South Africa Rondebosch 7701 South Africa
  • | 2 Universitá di Milano Istituto di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica Viale Abruzzi 42 20131 Milano Italy Viale Abruzzi 42 20131 Milano Italy
  • | 3 Universitá di Parma Department of Pharmacy Dipartimento Farmaceutico Parco Area delle Scienze 43100 Parma Italy Parco Area delle Scienze 43100 Parma Italy
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Abstract  

The thermal and structural characteristics of two crystal forms of ambroxol, (trans-((amino-2-dibromo-3,5-benzyl)amino)-4-cyclohexanol), a drug with remarkable mucolytic and expectorant properties marketed in several drug products, were investigated. Form II (m.p. 92.4C) is obtained by spontaneous cooling from a hot water/ethanol solution while Form I (m.p. 99.5C) slowly separates from the mother liquor. The two forms can be identified by PXRD and DSC analyses. On the basis of both thermal and structural data the thermodynamic relationship of enantiotropy was deduced. No metastable (Form I)?stable (Form II) conversion was observed upon storage at ambient conditions. Form I crystallizes in the space group P21/n (alternative setting of P21/c) with Z=8. Form II crystallizes in the space group P21/c with Z=4 and a significantly different crystal packing arrangement from that in Form I. A third crystalline modification, Form III (space group P21/c with Z=16) was detected on cooling a single crystal of Form I down to -70C. On warming to ambient temperature Form III was found to revert to Form I. This reversible single crystal to single crystal transition was structurally characterised and found to involve subtle changes in the types and extent of molecular disorder as well as the hydrogen bonding arrangement.

Manuscript Submission: HERE

  • Impact Factor (2019): 2.731
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.415
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 87
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q3 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Impact Factor (2018): 2.471
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.634
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 78
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Condensed Matter Physics
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
1969
Volumes
per Year
4
Issues
per Year
24
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1388-6150 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2926 (Online)