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  • 1 Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) 555 Booth Street Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1A 0G1 E-mail Canada (NRCan) 555 Booth Street Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1A 0G1 E-mail
  • | 2 Orenda Aerospace Corporation 1420 Blair Place, Suite 608 Gloucester, Ontario Canada K1J 9L8 1420 Blair Place, Suite 608 Gloucester, Ontario Canada K1J 9L8
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Abstract  

Three bio-fuels with or without additives and their fly ash samples were characterized using simultaneous Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry (TG-DTA-FTIR-MS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS). The results show that the additives increase the reactivity of the bio-fuel during combustion. The additives also significantly decrease the amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash. The additives affect the compounds formed in the fly ash sample, and consequently the thermal behaviour of the fly ash. The fly ash samples are thermally stable in air up to 100C. The fly ash samples contain fine particles with irregular shape, small round particles, and large hollow spherical particles with entrapped gases.

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