Summary The influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles with different shapes (spherical and elongated) on the thermal properties and crystallization behavior of isotactic polypropylene was investigated. CaCO3 nanoparticles were covered by an appropriate coating agent to improve the interfacial adhesion between the filler and the polyolefin matrix. The nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing and subsequent compression molding. A remarkable effect of CaCO3 on the thermal properties of iPP was observed. Moreover, the analysis of crystallization kinetics showed that CaCO3 nanopowder coated with PP-MA are efficient nucleating agents for iPP, and the overall crystallization rate results higher than plain iPP.