Summary Two hydrated and aged cement pastes from India (NCB), w/c=0.4, of a similar chemical composition but of a different specific surface and different strength (OPC, C-33 and C-43), hydrated at w/c=0.4 for 1 month, were studied by XRD after 1 year and 5-6 year ageing on contact with air. They were tested by static heating (SH) in fresh state, and by DTA/DTG/TG, IR and mass spectrometry (MS), after ageing, presented elsewhere. The main XRD peaks of (i) portlandite were decreasing with T and disappearing about 450°C, (ii) calcite peak at room T was small and broad, it increased gradually, especially after portlandite disappearance; above 600°C it was lowered and it was lost above 700°C. Important variation in the d(001) of portlandite with ageing was observed, exceeding the standard value of d(001)=4.895 Å (72-0156). It was higher in the paste C-33 (4.925-4.936 Å), containing more carbonates, than in the paste C-43 (4.916-4.927 Å). Small variations only were found in the value of d(101), i.e. 2.627-2.635 Å (nominally 2.622 Å), whereas the d(104) of calcite could be used as internal standard and other calcium carbonates (vaterite and aragonite) showed a small variation only. The increase ind(hkl) with temperature was straight linear (in portlandite ?d(001)=0.095 Å, at 30-400°C) and the thermal expansion coefficient estimated thereform was high (4.75-4.95·10-5 K-1). Close to the T of decomposition the ?d/?T became steeper. The thermal variation of d(104)=3.035 Å of calcite (?d=0.015 Å at 30-400°C) was smaller than that ofd(101) of portlandite (?d=0.025 Å at 30-400°C) and was similar in C-33 and C-43. The thermal expansion coefficient was 1.54 10-5 K-1, thus higher than the reported aa=0.65·10-5 K-1.