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  • 1 School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1292, Japan
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Abstract

Levulinic acid was obtained from fructose over solid acid catalysts under mild reaction conditions in water. The reaction was carried out at different temperatures and amounts of catalysts to find the best reaction conditions. Among tested heterogeneous catalysts, Amberlyst-15 gave the highest LA yield (52%) with the lowest HMF yield (below 3%) under optimum conditions. Levulinic acid was isolated from the mixture after reaction by rotary vacuum evaporator with 47% isolated yield. The recycling experiments showed that Amberlyst-15 exhibited good activity even after 5 runs, though the LA yield gradually decreased from 52 to 30%.

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
1974
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
6
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1878-5190 (Print)
ISSN 1878-5204 (Online)