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  • 1 Shenzhen Graduate School, E412, Harbin Institute of Technology, Environmental Science and Engineering Research Center, University Town, Xili, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of China
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Abstract

The effects of Ru precursor, Ru loading and calcination conditions on the properties and catalytic activities of ruthenium catalysts supported on activated carbon (Ru/AC) to remove bromate ion in water were investigated. A series of Ru/AC catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method and were characterized. From the examination of X-ray photoelectron spectra, RuO2 was deemed as the major active component on the Ru/AC catalysts to reduce bromate ion. The Ru precursors have significant effect on the activities of Ru/AC catalysts, due mainly to that (NH4)2RuCl6 was prone to generate metallic Ru, while RuCl3·3H2O could form RuO2. It was also found that calcination of Ru/AC in pure nitrogen gas favored the RuO2 formation compared with those calcined in vacuum and 1.5 vol.% H2/N2. The maximum bromate reduction efficiency around 95 % can be successfully achieved by Ru/AC prepared when the Ru loading, calcination temperature and time were 0.1 wt.%, 900 °C, and 3 h, in order, in a pure N2 atmosphere. From the characterization of catalysts, it was found that the excellent performance of Ru/AC would benefit from two aspects: one is that the structure and texture of the support carbon was strengthened during the calcination process, and the other is that an even distribution of RuO2 particles was obtained.

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