The dynamic mapping of science using the data in theScience Citation Index was put on the research agenda of science studies byDe Solla Price in the mid 1960s. Recently, proponents of co-citation cluster analysis have claimed that in principle their methodology makes such mapping possible. The study examines this claim, both methodologically and theoretically, in relation to other means of mapping science. A detailed study of a co-citation map, its core documents' citation patterns and the related journal structures, is presented. At these three levels of possible study of aggregates of citations, an analysis is pursued for the years 1978 to 1984. The many different statistical methods which are in use for the analysis of the respective datamatrices—such as cluster analysis, factor analysis and multidimensional scalling—are assessed with a view to their potential to contribute to a better undérstanding of the dynamics at the different levels in relation to each other. This will lead to some recommendations about methods to use and to avoid when we aim at a comprehensive mapping of science. Although the study is pursued at a formal and analytical level, in the conclusions an attempt is made to reflect on the results in terms of further substantial questions for the study of the dynamics of science.