Atribution theory as a new perspective for studying the psychology of science and scientists is introdced through use of a case study of college students' attributions for success and failure in science. The atributional perspective incorporates views of one's own competence as well as beliefs bout the importance of effort for success in science. It also provides a framework for analyzing differences in attitudes about various fields of science. Sex differences in science participation are a further area which can be analyzed from an atributional perspective. Results from the college student study are discussed along with suggestions for future research.