A national plan, designed to establish and support training and development of human resources for strengthening science and technology activities in Brazil was initiated almost three decades ago. This plan, named PNPG, can be viewed today as a successful program in terms of the quality of its general output. During this period research activity has been institutionalized and a few thousand active groups in several universities and research centers have been consolidated. Numerous technological advances in many areas have been achieved and continue throughout the country. A most impressive result of this effort was the acceleration and improvement of a more productive and internationally competitive agriculture, metallurgical engineering including metal-mechanic industry and paper-cellulose complex exploitation. These results also stimulated better performance of related areas such as agribusiness. The existence of an effective system based on a group of multi-funding agencies was an essential additional factor.