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  • 1 INGENIO, (CSIC-UPV), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46071 Valencia, Spain Camino de Vera s/n, 46071 Valencia, Spain
  • 2 INGENIO, (CSIC-UPV), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Valencia (Spain) Valencia (Spain)
  • 3 INGENIO, (CSIC-UPV), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Valencia (Spain) Valencia (Spain)
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Summary  

We estimate the determinants of university patents by route in Spain. National patents are an indicator of R&D efforts when we focus on the region, but not of how regions organize their university or joint research structure. International patents are a stronger indicator of R&D efforts, so they express confidence in the potential of the patent. Neither set is an indicator of proximity to the region's competencies in technologies other than for production-intensive sectors, so they will not always foster regional technology transfer. Since the driving forces of national and international patents differ, the use of both is recommended.