By tracing the flows of patent citation to prior patents and scientific journal articles, we investigate the sources of knowledge
for innovation output in Singapore, a small, highly open economy that has traditionally been significantly dependent on foreign
multinational corporations (MNCs). We found that the local production of new knowledge by indigenous Singaporean firms depends
disproportionately on technological knowledge produced by MNCs with operational presence in Singapore and scientific knowledge generated by foreign universities. Locally produced new knowledge by indigenous firms and local universities/ public
research institutes constitutes an as yet insignificant, albeit growing, source for innovation in Singapore.