This paper presents a methodology for measuring the improvements in efficiency and adjustments in the scale of R&D (Research
& Development) activities. For this purpose, this study decomposes academic productivity growth into components attributable
to (1) world academic frontier change, (2) R&D efficiency change, (3) human capital accumulation, and (4) capital accumulation.
The world academic frontier at each point in time is constructed using data envelopment analysis (DEA). This study calculates
each of the above four components of academic productivity for 27 countries over 1990–2003, and finds that the components
which contribute to academic productivity growth vary with the different countries’ characteristics and development stages.
Human capital has more weight in terms of the quantity of academic research, and capital accumulation plays a more important
role in the citation impact of academic research.