View More View Less
  • 1 INGENIO (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
  • | 2 European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)-Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), Seville, Spain
  • | 3 CSIC - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Institute of Public Goods and Policies (IPP-CCHS), Madrid, Spain
Restricted access

Cross Mark

Abstract

Access to public knowledge is a prerequisite for the good functioning of developed economies. Universities strive and are also requested to contribute to this knowledge both locally and internationally. Traditional studies on the geography of knowledge flows have identified a localisation effect; however, these studies do not use the country as the unit of observation and hence do not explore national patterns. In this paper, we hypothesise that the localisation of university knowledge flows is directly related to share of firm expenditure on research and development. To test this hypothesis, we use references to universities in patent documents as indicators based on a data set of around 20,000 university references, for 37 countries in the period 1990–2007, resulting in panels of around 300–500 observations. We build indicators for the university knowledge flows both inside and outside the applicant country, which we explain as a function of some proxies for national size and research structure based on econometric estimations. We draw some conclusions as to the importance of national business scientific strength for fostering increased domestic university knowledge flows.

  • Abramo, G, D’Angelo, CA, Solazzi, M 2010 Assessing public–private research collaboration: Is it possible to compare university performance?. Scientometrics 84:173197 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Acosta, M, Coronado, D 2003 Science-technology flows in Spanish regions: An analysis of scientific citations in patents. Research Policy 32 10 17831803 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Acosta, M, Coronado, D, Ferrándiz, E, León, MD 2011 Factors affecting inter-regional academic scientific collaboration within Europe: The role of economic distance. Scientometrics 87:6374 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agrawal, A, Cockburn, I, McHale, J 2006 Gone but not forgotten: Knowledge flows, labor mobility, and enduring social relationships. Journal of Economic Geography 6 5 571591 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agrawal, A, Kapur, D, McHale, J 2008 How do spatial and social proximity influence knowledge flows? Evidence from patent data. Journal of Urban Economics 64 2 258269 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alcácer, J, Gittelman, M 2006 Patent citations as a measurement of knowledge flows: The influence of examiner citations. Review of Economics and Statistics 88 4 774779 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alcácer, J, Gittelman, M, Sampat, B 2009 Applicant and examiner citations in US patents: An overview and analysis. Research Policy 38 2 415427 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Azagra-Caro, JM, Fernández-de-Lucio, I, Perruchas, F, Mattsson, P 2009 What do patent examiner inserted citations indicate for a region with low absorptive capacity?. Scientometrics 80 2 441455 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Azagra-Caro, J. M., Pontikakis, D., & Varga, A. (2011). Delocalisation patterns in university-industry interaction: Evidence from the 6th R&D framework programme. European Planning Studies, forthcoming.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Azagra-Caro, JM, Yegros–Yegros, A, Archontakis, F 2006 What do university patent routes indicate at regional level?. Scientometrics 66 1 219230 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Breschi, S, Lissoni, F 2001 Knowledge spillovers and local innovation systems: A critical survey. Industrial and Corporate Change 10 4 9751005 .

  • Breschi, S, Lissoni, F 2005 Knowledge networks from patent data HF Moed W Glänzel U Schmoch eds. Handbook of quantitative science and technology research Kluwer Dordrecht 613643 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Breschi, S., & Malerba, F. (1997). Sectoral innovation systems: Technological regimes, Shumpeterian dynamics, and spatial boundaries. In C. Edquist (ed.), Systems of innovation: Technologies, institutions and organizations (ch. 6). Londres and Washington: Pinter.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callaert, J B van Looy Verbeek, A, Debackere, K, Thus, B 2006 Traces of prior art: An analysis of non-patent references found in patent documents. Scientometrics 69 1 320 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Criscuolo, P, Verspagen, B 2008 Does it matter where patent citations come from? Inventor vs. examiner citations in European patents. Research Policy 37 10 18921908 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EC (2007). Commission Green Paper ‘The European Research Area: New Perspectives’, COM(2007) p. 161.

  • Feldman, MP 1999 The new economics of innovation, spillovers and agglomeration: A review of empirical studies. Economics of Innovation and New Technology 8 1 525 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greene, WH 2002 LIMDEP Version 8.0 econometric modeling guide 2 Econometric Software, Inc Plainview, NY.

  • Guellec, D B van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie 2001 The internationalisation of technology analysed with patent data. Research Policy 30:12531266 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, AGZ, Jaffe, AB 2003 Patent citations and international knowledge flow: The cases of Korea and Taiwan. International Journal of Industrial Organization 21 6 849880 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaffe, AB, Trajtenberg, M 1996 Flows of knowledge from universities and federal labs: Modeling the flow of patent citations over time and across institutional and geographic boundaries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93:1267112677 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaffe, AB, Trajtenberg, M 1999 International knowledge flows: Evidence from patent citations. Economics of Innovation and New Technology 8 1 105136 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaffe, AB, Trajtenberg, M, Henderson, R 1993 Geographic localization of knowledge spillovers as evidenced by patent citations. Quarterly Journal of Economics 108 3 577598 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lecocq, C B Van Looy 2009 The impact of collaboration on the technological performance of regions: Time invariant or driven by life cycle dynamics?. Scientometrics 80 3 847867 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maurseth, PB, Verspagen, B 2002 Knowledge spillovers in Europe: A patent citations analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Economics 104 4 531545 .

  • Meyer, M 2000 Does science push technology? Patents citing scientific literature. Research Policy 29 3 409434 .

  • Pavitt, K 1984 Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory. Research Policy 13:343373 .

  • Phene, A, Fladmoe-Lindquist, K, Marsh, L 2006 Breakthrough innovations in the US biotechnology industry: The effects of technological space and geographic origin. Strategic Management Journal 27 4 369388 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ponds, R 2009 The limits to internationalization of scientific research collaboration. Journal of Technology Transfer 34:7694 .

  • Rosenkopf, L, Nerkar, A 2001 Beyond local search: Boundary-spanning, exploration, and impact in the optical disk industry. Strategic Management Journal 22 4 287306 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sapsalis, E B van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie 2007 The institutional sources of knowledge and the value of academic patents. Economics of Innovation and New Technology 16 2 139157 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singh, J 2005 Collaborative networks as determinants of knowledge diffusion patterns. Management Science 51 5 756770 .

  • Sonn, JW, Storper, M 2008 The increasing importance of geographical proximity in technological innovation: An analysis of US patent citations, 1975–1997. Environment and Planning 40 5 10201039 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tijssen, RJW 2001 Global and domestic utilization of industrial relevant science: Patent citation analysis of science-technology interactions and knowledge flows. Research Policy 30 1 3554 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tijssen, RJW TN Van Leeuwen 2006 Measuring impacts of academic science on industrial research: A citation-based approach. Scientometrics 66 1 5569 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verbeek, A, Debackere, K, Luwel, M 2003 Science cited in patents: A geographic “flow” analysis of bibliographic citation patterns in patents. Scientometrics 58 2 241263 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation