View More View Less
  • 1 Graduate Institute of Library and Information Studies, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan clavenke@ntnu.edu.tw
  • 2 Computing Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
Restricted access

Abstract

This article identifies patterns and structures in the social tagging of scholarly articles in CiteULike. Using a dataset of 4,215 tags attributed to 1,600 scholarly articles from 15 library and information science journals, a network was built to understand users’ information organization behavior. Social network analysis and the frequent-pattern tree method were used to discover the implicit patterns and structures embedded in social tags as well as in their use, based on 26 proposed tag categories. The pattern and structure of this network of social tags is characterized by power-law distribution, centrality, co-used tag categories, role sharing among tag categories, and similar roles of tag categories in associating distinct tag categories. Furthermore, researchers generated 21 path-based decision-making sub-trees providing valuable insights into user tagging behavior for information organization professionals. The limitations of this study and future research directions are discussed.

  • Agarwal, N, Liu, H 2009 Modeling and data mining in blogosphere Morgan and Claypool San Rafael, CA.

  • Al-Khalifa, H. S., & Davis, H. C. (2006). Measuring the semantic value of folksonomies. In Proceedings of the Second International IEEE Conference on Innovations in Information Technology (pp. 15). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. Retrieved from http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/13159/1/final_measuring.pdf. Accessed 8 August 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Angus, E, Thelwall, M, Stuart, D 2008 General patterns of tag usage among university groups in Flickr. Online Information Review 32 1 89101 .

  • Bar-Ilan, J, Shoham, S, Idan, A, Miller, Y, Shachak, A 2008 Structured versus unstructured tagging: A case study. Online Information Review 32 5 635647 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bischoff, K., Firan, C. S., Nejdl, W., & Paiu, R. (2008). Can all tags be used for search? In Proceedings of CIKM’08 (pp. 203212).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Golder, SA, Huberman, BA 2006 Usage patterns of collaborative tagging systems. Journal of Information Science 32 2 198208 .

  • Han, J., Pei, J., & Yin, Y. (2000). Mining frequent patterns without candidate generation. In Proceedings of the 2000 ACM SIGMOD international conference on management of data (pp. 112). New York: ACM Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haythornthwaite, C 1996 Social network analysis: An approach and technique for the study of information exchange. Library and Information Science Research 18 4 323342 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heckner, M., Mühlbacher, S., & Wolff, C. (2008). Tagging tagging: analysing user keywords in scientific bibliography management systems. Journal of Digital Information, 9 (2). Retrieved from http://journals.tdl.org/jodi/article/view/246/208/. Accessed 26 July 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heery, R., & Patel, M. (2000). Application profiles: mixing and matching metadata schemas. Ariadne, 25. Retrieved from http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue25/app-profiles/. Accessed 8 August 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heymann, P., Koutrika, G., & Garcia-Molina, H. (2008). Can social bookmarking improve web search? In Proceedings of the second international conference on web search and web data mining (pp. 195206). New York: ACM Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holley, R. (2010). Tagging full text searchable articles: an overview of social tagging activity in historic Australian newspapers August 20082009. Retrieved from http://eprints.rclis.org/bitstream/10760/14206/1/Personal_Tagging_article_Dlib_Jan_2010_Final.pdf. Accessed 8 August 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hotho, A., Jächke, R., Schmitz, C., & Stumme, G. (2006). Information retrieval in folksonomies: Search and ranking. In Proceedings of ESWC 2006. Retrieved 8 August, 2011 from http://www.kde.cs.uni-kassel.de/stumme/papers/2006/hotho2006information.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kipp, M.E.I. (2006). Complementary or discrete contexts in online indexing: a comparison of user, creator and intermediary keywords. Paper presented at CAIS/ACSI Conference. Retrieved from http://eprints.rclis.org/bitstream/10760/8771/1/mkipp-caispaper.pdf. Accessed 31 December 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kipp, MEI 2011 Tagging of biomedical articles on CiteULike: A comparison of user, author and professional indexing. Knowledge Organization 38 3 245261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kipp, MEI 2011 User, author and professional indexing in context: An exploration of tagging practices on CiteULike. The Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science 35 1 1748.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kipp, M.E.I., & Campbell, D.G. (2006). Patterns and inconsistencies in collaborative tagging systems: An examination of tagging practices. Paper presented at Annual General Meeting of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. http://eprints.rclis.org/bitstream/10760/8720/1/KippCampbellASIST.pdf. Accessed 5 July 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, X., Beaudoin, J.E., Bui, Y., Desai, K. (2006). Exploring characteristics of social classification. In J. Furner and J.T. Tennis (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th ASIS&T SIG/CR cassification research workshop. Retrieved from http://faculty.cis.drexel.edu/∼xlin/papers/ASIS200. Accessed 5 July 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, C, Park, J, Hu, X 2010 User tags versus expert-assigned subject terms: A comparison of LibraryThing tags and Library of Congress subject headings. Journal of Information Science 36 6 763779 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marlow, C., Naaman, M., Body, D., & Davis, M. (2006). Position paper: tagging, taxonomy, Flikr, article, toread. In Proceedings of the collaborative web tagging workshop at the WWW 2006. New York: ACM Press. Retrieved from http://www.danah.org/papers/WWW2006.pdf. Accessed 30 December 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Munk, TB, Mørk, K 2007 Folksonomies, tagging communities, and tagging strategies: an empirical study. Knowledge Organization 34 3 115127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Munk, TB, Mørk, K 2007 Folksonomy, the power law and the significance of the least effort. Knowledge Organization 34 1 1633.

  • NISO 2005 Guidelines for the construction, format, and management of monolingual controlled vocabularies NISO Press Bethesda, MD.

  • Rorissa, A 2010 A comparative study of Flickr tags and index terms in a general image collection. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 61 11 22302242 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sen, S., Lam, S. K., Rashid, A. M., Cosley, D., Frankowski, D., Osterhouse, J., et al. (2006). Tagging, communities, vocabulary, evolution. In CSCW ‘06: Proceedings of the 2006 20th anniversary conference on computer supported cooperative work (pp. 181190). New York: ACM Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spiteri, L. F. (2007). Structure and form of folksonomy tags: the road to the public library. Webology, 4 (2). Retrieved from http://www.webology.org/2007/v4n2/a41.html/. Accessed 14 July 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stvilia, B, Jörgensen, C 2010 Member activities and quality of tags in a collection of historical photographs in Flickr. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 61 12 24772489 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trant, J. (2008). Tagging, folksonomy and art museums: Results of steve.muesum's research. Retrieved from http://conference.archimuse.com/files/trantSteveResearchReport2008.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yi, K., & Chan, L. M. (2009). Linking folksonomy to Library of Congress subject headings—An exploratory study. Journal of Documentation, 65 (6), 872900.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, M 2010 Social network analysis: history, concepts and research B Furht eds. Handbook of social network technologies and applications Springer New York 322 .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation