Authors:
A. S. GraingerSchool of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK

Search for other papers by A. S. Grainger in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
R. I. M. DunbarSchool of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
British Academy Centenary Research Project, Institute of Cognitive & Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Search for other papers by R. I. M. Dunbar in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Verbal and non-verbal vocal cues of co-operation and competition were assessed in 120 freely-formed dyadic conversations. In line with previous research, female/female dyads were found to be the most cooperative. However, in female/female conversations, cooperation decreased, and non-verbal competition increased, when males were present. Male/male conversation did not exhibit significant changes in style when a female audience was present. Mixed-sex conversations showed evidence of compromise between the two conversational styles; however, females were still significantly more cooperative in conversational style than males, and males exhibited higher levels of verbal competitiveness than females.

  • H. Achat I. Kawachi S. Levine C. Berkey E. Coakley G. Colditz 1998 Social networks, stress and health-related quality of life Quality of Life Research 7 735 750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • K. L. Anderson C. Leaper 1998 Meta-analyses of gender effects on conversational interruption: Who, what, when, where, and how Sex Roles 39 225 252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. H. Barkow 1992 Beneath new culture is old psychology: Gossip and social stratification J. H. Barkow L. Cosmides J. Tooby The Adapted Mind Oxford University Press Oxford 627 637.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • G. Beattie 1983 Talk: Analysis of Speech and Non-verbal Behaviour in Conversation Open University Press Milton Keynes.

  • G. Beattie 2003 Visible Thought: The New Psychology of Body Language Routledge London.

  • G. R. Benjamin C. A. Creider 1975 Social distinctions in non-verbal behavior Semiotica 14 52 60.

  • M. H. Bond H. Y. Ho 1978 The effect of relative status and the sex composition of a dyad on cognitive responses and non-verbal behavior of Japanese interviewees Psychologia 21 128 136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. Campbell 1995 A few good men: evolutionary psychology and female adolescent aggression Ethology and Sociobiology 16 99 123.

  • A. Campbell 2002 A Mind of Her Own: The Evolutionary Psychology of Women Oxford University Press Oxford.

  • J. Coates 1993 Women, Men and Language Longman London.

  • J. Coates 1994 No gap, lots of overlap: Turn-taking patterns in the talk of women friends D. Graddol J. Maybin B. Stierer Researching Language and Literacy in Social Context Multilingual Matters Clevedon 177 192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. Coates 1995 Language, gender and career S. Mills Language and Gender Longman Essex 13 30.

  • J. Coates 1996 Women Talk Blackwell Oxford.

  • J. Coates 1997 One-at-a-time: The organisation of men's talk S. Johnson U. H. Meinhoff Language and Masculinity Blackwell Oxford 107 129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R. I. M. Dunbar 1996 Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language Faber & Faber London.

  • R. I. M. Dunbar N. Duncan D. Nettle 1995 Size and structure of freely forming conversational groups Human Nature 6 67 78.

  • R. I. M. Dunbar N. Duncan A. Marriot 1997 Human conversational behaviour Human Nature 8 231 246.

  • R. I. M. Dunbar L. Cornah F. Daly K. Bowyer 2002 Vigilance in humans: A test of alternative hypotheses Behaviour 139 695 711.

  • C. Edelsky 1981 Who's got the floor? Language in Society 10 383 421.

  • S. Eggins D. Slade 1997 Analysing Casual Conversation Cassell London.

  • N. Emler 1990 A social psychology of reputation European Review of Social Psychology 1 171 193.

  • R. Fuhrer S. A. Stansfeld J. Chemali M. J. Shipley 1999 Gender, social relations and mental health: Prospective findings from an occupational cohort (Whitehall II study) Social Science and Medicine 48 77 87.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • C. M. Galloway 1974 Non-verbal: the language of sensitivity Theory into Practice 13 381 383.

  • J. A. Goldberg 1990 Interrupting the discourse on interruptions Journal of Pragmatics 14 883 903.

  • M. H. Goodwin 1990 He-Said-She-Said: Talk as Social Organization Among Black Children Indiana University Press Bloomington.

  • M. H. Goodwin 2003 The relevance of ethnicity, class, and gender in children's peer negotiations J. Holmes M. Meyerhoff Handbook of Language and Gender Blackwell Oxford 229 251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. Gordon J. Heath 1998 Sex, sound symbolism, and sociolinguistics Current Anthropology 39 421 449.

  • J. J. Gumperz 1982 Discourse Strategies Cambridge University Press Cambridge.

  • D. Handelman 1973 Gossip in encounters: The transmission of information in a bounded society setting Man 8 210 227.

  • W. W. Hartup N. Stevens 1997 Friendships and adaptation in the life course Psychological Bulletin 121 355 370.

  • N. M. Henly 1975 Power, sex, and nonverbal communication B. Thorne N. Henley Language and Sex, Difference and Dominance Rowley Massachusetts 184 203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • P. Henzi L. de Sousa Pereira D. Hawker-Bond J. Stiller R. Dunbar L. Barrett 2007 Look who's talking: developmental trends in the size of conversational cliques Evolution and Human Behavior 28 66 74.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R. A. Hinde 1979 Towards Understanding Relationships Academic Press London.

  • R. Lakoff 1975 Language and Woman's Place Harper and Row New York.

  • J. E. Lansford J. G. Parker 1999 Children's interactions in triads: Behavioral profiles and effects of gender and patterns of friendships among members Developmental Psychology 35 80 93.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • C. Leaper 1994 Exploring the consequences of gender segregation on social relationships New Developments in Child Development 65 67 86.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R. A. Llanos C. M. Orozco O. S. Garcia 1999 Relationship between the social networks and the family dynamics of low-income working women Journal of Community Psychology 27 243 255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D. N. Maltz R. A. Borker 1982 A cultural approach to male-female miscommunication J. J. Gumperz Language and Social Identity Cambridge University Press Cambridge 196 216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. Mulac K. T. Erlandson W. J. Farrar J. S. Hallett J. L. Molloy M. E. Prescott 1998 “Uh-huh. What's that all about?” Differing interpretations of conversational backchannels and questions as sources of miscommunication across gender boundaries Communication Research 25 641 668.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • B. Pawłowski R. Atwal R.I.M. Dunbar 2007 Gender differences in everyday risktaking Evolutionary Psychology 6 29 42.

  • E. B. Ryan 1979 Why do low-prestige language varieties persist? H. Giles R. N. StClair Language and Social Psychology Basil Blackwell Oxford 145 157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • H. Sacks E. A. Schegloff G. Jefferson 1974 A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation Language 50 696 735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • B.B. Smuts 1992 Male aggression against women: An evolutionary perspective Human Nature 3 1 44.

  • D. Spender 1980 Man Made Language Routledge & Kegan Paul London.

  • J. M. Suls 1977 Gossip as social comparison Journal of Communication 27 164 168.

  • B. Wells S. Macfarlane 1998 Prosody as an interactional resource: Turn-projection and overlap Language and Speech 41 265 294.

  • B. B. Whiting C. P. Edwards 1988 Children of Different Worlds: The Formnation of Social Behavior Harvard University Press Cambridge (MA).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collapse
  • Expand

Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 
Language English
Size  
Year of
Foundation
2007 (2003)
Publication
Programme
changed title
Volumes
per Year
 
Issues
per Year
 
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1789-2082 (Print)
ISSN 2060-5587 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2022 6 0 0
Jul 2022 1 0 0
Aug 2022 0 0 0
Sep 2022 0 0 0
Oct 2022 14 0 0
Nov 2022 9 0 0
Dec 2022 0 0 0