View More View Less
  • 1 Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, Japan
  • 2 Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
  • 3 Faculty of Letters, Arts and Sciences, Waseda University, Waseda, Japan
  • 4 Graduate School of Tourism Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Ryukyus, Japan
  • 5 Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555, Japan
Restricted access

Abstract

Possible effects of external and internal factors affecting prosociality in Japanese undergraduates were investigated. We employed social support as an external factor and helping norms, self-consciousness, other-consciousness, self-esteem, and religious attitude as internal factors. Prosociality toward friends/acquaintances was significantly positively correlated with social support from siblings, social support from friends/acquaintances, self-sacrifice norms, and private self-consciousness, whereas prosociality toward strangers was significantly positively correlated with social support from mothers, private self-consciousness, and self-esteem but negatively correlated with social support from siblings. The results support claims of an altruism niche that rest on the assumption that prosociality can be maintained only in an environment or a society in which altruistic acts are rewarded. Among the internal factors, private self-consciousness was the only factor found to correlate with both aspects of prosociality. Higher scores on private selfconsciousness were related to irrational altruism, making people less susceptible to the features of particular situations and, consequently, producing reputational benefits.

  • N. Eisenberg P. H. Mussen 1989 The Roots of Prosocial Behavior in Children Cambridge University Press Cambridge.

  • A. Feningstein M. F. Scheier A. H. Buss 1975 Public and private self-consciousness: assessment and theory Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 43 522 527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • H. Hakoi O. Takagi 1987 A comparative study of normative attitude toward helping between the different groups of sex, age and generation Japanese Journal of Social Psychology 3 39 47.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • F. Hayashi 2010 Contemporary Japanese religious mind — Based on survey data from the Japanese National Character and other cross national surveys Proceedings of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics 58 39 59.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hisata, M., Senda, S. and Miguchi, M. (1989): An attempt to develop the scale of expectancy for social support (1). The proceedings of the 30th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Social Psychology, 143–144. (in Japanese).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. Kikuchi 1988 Omoiyari wo kagaku suru Kawashima Shoten Tokyo.

  • Y. Nabeta K. Sugawara S. Katayama H. Koshikawa 1988 Self-consciousness in neurotic and similar psychiatric patients: Second report Seishin-igaku (Psychiatry) 30 1297 1304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oda, R., Yamauchi, S., Naganawa, T., Hiraishi, K. and Matsumoto-Oda, A.: Examination of utility of the prosocial behavior scale for evolutionary study of altruism. Kanko-kagaku, in press (in Japanese with English abstract).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. Rosenberg 1965 Society and the Adolescent Self-image Princeton Univ. Press NJ.

  • J. P. Rushton R. D. Chrisjohn G. C. Frekken 1981 The altruistic personality and the self-report altruism scale Personality and Individual Differences 2 293 302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • K. Sugawara 1984 An attempt to construct the self-consciousness scale for Japanese Japanese Journal of Psychology 55 184 188.

  • R.L. Trivers 1971 The evolution of reciprocal altruism The Quarterly Review of Biology 46 35 55.

  • H. Tsuji 1993 Jikoishiki to tashaishiki Kitaoji Syobo Kyoto.

  • D. S. Wilson M. Csikszentmihalyi 2007 Health and the ecology of altruism S. G. Post The Science of Altruism and Health Oxford Univ. Press Oxford 314 331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D. S. Wilson D. T. O'Brien A. Sesma 2009 Human prosociality from an evolutionary perspective: variation and correlation at a city-wide scale Evolution and Human Behavior 30 190 200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoshida, F., Takagi, H. and Mori, M. (1987): Religious attitude of contemporary university students (1) — Construction of the religious attitude scale. The proceedings of the 51th annual convention of the Japanese Psychological Association, 544. (in Japanese).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

No Evolutionist is an Island

A review of Kevin N. Laland and Gillian R. Brown (2011) Sense and Nonsense. Evolutionary perspectives of human behaviour Oxford: Oxford University Press. 270 pages, ISBN: 978-0-19-958696-7