View More View Less
  • 1 Institute of Psychology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
  • | 2 Department of Linguistics, Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA
  • | 3 Department of Linguistics, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
  • | 4 Department of Neurology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
  • | 5 Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
Restricted access

Abstract

The role of the basal ganglia in cognition is still uncertain. This case study investigates the partial neuropsychological profile of a 20-year-old patient with a perinatal left putaminal lesion. This pathology is relatively rare and little is known of its cognitive effects. The focuses of our neuropsychological assessment were working memory, executive functions, analysis of spontaneous speech and implicit skill learning. The patient's executive functions did not attain the normal range, and working memory was also partially impaired. In addition, the temporal features of her speech revealed an increased pause/signal time ratio. Finally, in an implicit skill learning task, the patient showed general motor skill learning, but no sequence specific learning. Together these findings suggest that the frontal/subcortical circuit between the putamen and frontal motor areas plays a role in higher cognitive processing such as executive functions, working memory, as well as in first-order sequence learning.

  • H. Ackermann W. Ziegler 1991 Articulatory deficits in parkinsonian dysarthria: An acoustic analysis J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 54 12 1093 1098.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. Alegret F. Valldeoriola E. Tolosa P. Vendrell C. Junque J. Martinez et al.2003 Cognitive effects of unilateral posteroventral pallidotomy: A 4-year follow-up study Mov. Disord. 18 3 323 328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • G. E. Alexander M. R. DeLong P. L. Strick 1986 Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex Annual Review of Neuroscience 9 357 381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. P. Alexander 1989 Clinical-anatomical correlations of aphasia following predominantly subcortical lesions F. Boller J. Grafman Handbook of Neuropsychology Elsevier New York 47 66.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. Baddeley 1992 Working memory Science 255 556 559.

  • T. Brandt L. R. Caplan J. Dichgans H. C. Diener C. Kennard 1996 Neurological Disorders: Course and Treatment Academic Press New York.

  • R. G. Brown M. Jahanshahi P. Limousin-Dowsey D. Thomas N. P. Quinn J. C. Rothwell 2003 Pallidotomy and incidental sequence learning in Parkinson's disease Neuroreport 14 1 21 24.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crosson, B. (1992): Subcortical Functions in Language and Memory: The Guilford Press.

  • J. L. Cummings 1993 Frontal-subcortical circuits and human behavior Arch. Neurol. 50 8 873 880.

  • M. D'Esposito J. A. Detre D. C. Alsop R. K. Shin S. Atlas M. Grossman 1995 The neural basis of the central executive system of working memory Nature 378 6554 279 281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. R. Damasio H. Damasio M. Rizzo N. Varney F. Gersh 1982 Aphasia with nonhemorrhagic lesions in the basal ganglia and internal capsule Archives of Neurology 39 15 20.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. Daneman P. A. Carpenter 1980 Individual differences in working memory and reading Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 19 450 466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. Daniele P. Bartolomeo E. Cassetta A. R. Bentivoglio G. Gainotti A. Albanese et al.1997 Obsessive-compulsive behaviour and cognitive impairment in a parkinsonian patient after left putaminal lesion Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 62 288 302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dennis, N., Cabeza, R. (2010): Age-related dedifferentiation of learning systems: An fMRI study of implicit and explicit learning. Neurobiology of Aging. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.04.004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. E. Desmond J. A. Fiez 1998 Neuroimaging studies of the cerebellum: Language, learning and memory Trends Cogn. Sci. 2 355 362.

  • J. Doyon P. Bellec R. Amsel V. Penhune O. Monchi J. Carrier et al.2009 Contributions of the basal ganglia and functionally related brain structures to motor learning Behav. Brain Res. 199 1 61 75.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. Doyon D. Gaudreau R. Laforce Jr. M. Castonguay P. J. Bedard F. Bedard et al.1997 Role of the striatum, cerebellum, and frontal lobes in the learning of a visuomotor sequence Brain Cogn. 34 2 218 245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. Doyon R. Laforce Jr. G. Bouchard D. Gaudreau J. Roy M. Poirier et al.1998 Role of the striatum, cerebellum and frontal lobes in the automatization of a repeated visuomotor sequence of movements Neuropsychologia 36 7 625 641.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • S. Feldstein R. N. Bond 1981 Perception of speech rate as a function of vocal intensity and frequency Lang Speech 24 Pt4 387 394.

  • M. F. Folstein S. E. Folstein P. R. McHugh 1975 “Mini-mental state”: Apractical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician Journal of Psychiatric Research 12 189 198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. Giroud M. Lemesle G. Madinier T. Billiar R. Dumas 1997 Unilateral lenticular infarcts: Radiological and clinical syndromes, aetiology, and prognosis J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 63 5 611 615.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. F. Green M. F. Green R. S. Kern O. Williams S. McGurk K. Kee 1997 Procedural learning in schizophrenia: Evidence from serial reaction time Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 2 2 123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. M. Gurd J. M. Bamford 1997 Striato-capsular aphasia: Contrasting cases J. Neurolinguist. 10 325 346.

  • C. A. Haaxma B. R. Bloem G. F. Borm W. J. Oyen K. L. Leenders S. Eshuis et al.2007 Gender differences in Parkinson's disease J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 78 8 819 824.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • G. Hickok D. Poeppel 2007 The cortical organization of speech processing Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8 5 393 402.

  • O. Hikosaka K. Nakamura K. Sakai H. Nakahara 2002 Central mechanisms of motor skill learning Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12 2 217 222.

  • O. Hikosaka H. Nakahara M. K. Rand K. Sakai X. Lu K. Nakamura et al.1999 Parallel neural networks for learning sequential procedures TINS 22 10 464 471.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. K. Ho B. J. Sahakian T. W. Robbins R. A. Barker A. E. Rosser J. R. Hodges 2002 Verbal fluency in Huntington's disease: A longitudinal analysis of phonemic and semantic clustering and switching Neuropsychologia 40 1277 1284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • I. Hoffmann D. Nemeth C. Dye M. Pákáski T. Irinyi J. Kálmán 2010 Temporal parameters of spontaneous speech in Alzheimer's disease International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 12 1 29 34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • K. Janacsek T. Tánczos T. Mészáros D. Nemeth 2009 The Hungarian version of Listening Span task Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle (Hungarian Review of Psychology) 64 2 385 406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • E. R. Kandel J. H. Schwartz T. M. Jessell 2000 Principles of Neural Science 4th ed. McGraw-Hill New York.

  • S. W. Keele R. Ivry U. Mayr E. Hazeltine H. Heuer 2003 The cognitive and neural architecture of sequence representation Psychological Review 110 2 316 339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • T. Kincses H. Johansen-Berg V. Tomassini R. Bosnell P. Matthews C. Beckmann 2008 Model-free characterization of brain functional networks for motor sequence learning using fMRI Neuroimage 39 4 1950 1958.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. D. King J. M. Walshe B. E. Kendall R. J. S. Chinn M. N. J. Paley I. D. Wilkinson et al.1996 Cranial MR imaging in Wilson's disease AJR 167 1579 1584.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D. Knopman M. J. Nissen 1991 Procedural learning is impaired in Huntington's disease: Evidence from the serial reaction time task Neuropsychologia 29 3 245 254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D. LaPlane M. Baulac D. Widlocher B. DuBois 1984 Pure psychic akinesia with bilateral lesions of basal ganglia Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 47 377 385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. D. Lezak 1995 Neuropsychological Assessment 3rd ed. Oxford University Press New York.

  • Max, J. E., Fox, P. T., Lancaster, J. L., Kochunov, P., Mathews, K., Manes, F. F. et al. (2002): Putamen lesions and the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptomatology. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41 (5).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • S. E. McPherson J. L. Cummings 1996 Neuropsychological aspects of vascular dementia Brain Cogn. 31 2 269 282.

  • F. A. Middleton P. L. Strick 2000 Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops: Motor and cognitive circuits Brain Research 31 2-3 236 250.

  • F. A. Middleton P. L. Strick 2002 Basal-ganglia ‘projections’ to the prefrontal cortex of the primate Cerebral Cortex 12 9 926 935.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • S. E. Nadeau B. Crosson 1997 Subcortical aphasia Brain and Language 58 3 355 402.

  • S. Negash B. F. Boeve Y. E. Geda G. E. Smith D. S. Knopman R. J. Ivnik et al.2007 Implicit learning of sequential regularities and spatial contexts in corticobasal syndrome Neurocase 13 3 133 143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D. Nemeth K. Janacsek Z. Londe M. T. Ullman D. Howard J. Howard 2010 Sleep has no critical role in implicit motor sequence learning in young and old adults Experimental Brain Research 201 2 351 358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. J. Nissen P. Bullemer 1987 Attentional requirements of learning: Evidence from performance measures Cognitive Psychology 19 1 32.

  • A. Pascual-Leone J. Grafman K. Clark M. Stewart S. Massaquoi J.-S. Lou et al.1993 Procedural learning in Parkinson's disease and cerebellar degeneration Annals of Neurology 34 594 602.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • P. Peigneux P. Maquet T. Meulemans A. Destrebecqz S. Laureys C. Degueldre et al.2000 Striatum forever, despite sequence learning variability: A random effect analysis of PET data Human Brain Mapping 10 4 179 194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R. A. Poldrack F. W. Sabb K. Foerde S. M. Tom R. F. Asarnow S. Y. Bookheimer et al.2005 The neural correlates of motor skill automaticity Journal of Neuroscience 25 5356 5364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. Racsmány Lukács D. Németh C. Pléh 2005 A verbális munkamemória magyar nyelvű vizsgálóeljárásai (Hungarian diagnostic tools of verbal working memory functions) Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle (Hungarian Review of Psychology) 60 4 479 506.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • S. L. Rauch P. J. Whalen C. R. Savage T. Curran A. Kendrick H. D. Brown et al.1997 Striatal recruitment during an implicit sequence learning task as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging Hum. Brain Mapp. 5 2 124 132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. Raven J. C. Raven J. H. Court 2004 Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales. Section 3: The Standard Progressive Matrices Harcourt Assessment San Antonio, TX.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • P. J. Reber L. R. Squire 1994 Parallel brain systems for learning with and without awareness Learning & Memory 1 4 217.

  • P. J. Reber L. R. Squire 1998 Encapsulation of implicit and explicit memory in sequence learning Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 10 2 248 263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • E. M. Robertson 2007 The serial reaction time task: Implicit motor skill learning? Journal of Neuroscience 27 10073 10075.

  • J. D. Schmahmann 1998 Dysmetria of thought: Clinical consequences of cerebellar dysfunction on cognition and affect Trends Cogn. Sci. 2 9 362 371.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. D. Schmahmann J. C. Sherman 1998 The cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome Brain 121 Pt4 561 579.

  • R. L. Strub 1989 Frontal lobe syndrome in a patient with bilateral globus pallidus lesions Arch. Neurol. 46 9 1024 1027.

  • E. V. Sullivan R. De La Paz R. B. Zipursky A. Pfefferbaum 1991 Neuropsychological deficits accompanying striatonigral degeneration J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 13 5 773 788.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • S. Torriero M. Oliveri G. Koch C. Caltagirone L. Petrosini 2004 Interference of left and right cerebellar rTMS with procedural learning Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16 9 1605 1611.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. I. Troster S. P. Woods J. A. Fields 2003 Verbal fluency declines after pallidotomy: An interaction between task and lesion laterality Appl. Neuropsychol. 10 2 69 75.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. K. Troyer M. Moscovitch G. Winocur 1997 Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: Evidence from younger and older healthy adults Neuropsychology 11 1 138 146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. K. Troyer S. E. Black M. L. Armilio M. Moscovitch 2004 Cognitive and motor functioning in a patient with selective infarction of the left basal ganglia: Evidence for decreased non-routine response selection and performance Neuropsychologia 42 7 902 911.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. K. Troyer M. Moscovitch G. Wincour M. P. Alexander D. Stuss 1998 Clustering and switching on verbal fluency: The effects of focal frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions Neuropsychologia 36 6 499 504.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • P. J. Uhlhaas W. Singer 2006 Neural synchrony in brain disorders: Relevance for cognitive dysfunctions and pathophysiology Neuron 52 1 155 168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. T. Ullman 2001 A neurocognitive perspective on language: The declarative/procedural model Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2 717 726.

  • H. Westwater J. McDowall R. Siegert S. Mossman D. Abernethy 1998 Implicit learning in Parkinson's disease: Evidence from a verbal version of the serial reaction time task Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 20 3 413 418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Learning & Perception
Language English
Size  
Year of
Foundation
2009
Publication
Programme
ceased
Volumes
per Year
 
Issues
per Year
 
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1789-3186 (Print)
ISSN 2060-9175 (Online)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Jun 2021 7 0 0
Jul 2021 4 0 0
Aug 2021 14 0 0
Sep 2021 16 0 0
Oct 2021 10 0 0
Nov 2021 16 0 0
Dec 2021 0 0 0