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  • 1 I. sz. Patológiai és Kísérleti Rákkutató Intézet, Semmelweis Egyetem, ÁOK, 1085, Budapest, Üllői út 26.
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Absztrakt

A legkülönbözőbb speciesekben termelődő gazdavédő peptidek számos tagja in vitro és állatkísérletekben igen kifejezett ráksejtölő aktivitással rendelkezik. Emellett számos olyan előnyös vonásuk van, amely miatt ígéretes, hogy belőlük potenciálisan új rákellenes szereket fejlesszenek ki. Többségük széles spektrumú aktivitással rendelkezik, a konvencionális kemoterápiás szereknél nagyobb specificitást mutatnak a ráksejtekkel szemben és képesek a konvencionális kemoterápiás szerekkel szemben rezisztenssé vált ráksejtek elölésére is. Képesek különböző kemoterápiás szerek citotoxikus aktivitását fokozni multidrug-rezisztens tumorsejtekkel szemben is. Sejtölő hatásukat többnyire a sejtmembrán károsítása révén fejtik ki, csekély tehát az esély, hogy velük szemben rezisztencia alakuljon ki. Nem csak a proliferáló, hanem a szunnyadó ráksejtekre is hatnak. Számos ilyen peptid a klasszikus kemoterápiás szerekkel történő kombinált alkalmazás esetén azokkal szinergisztikusan hat. Szintetikus variánsok, peptidomimetikumok előállítása és alkalmazása a természetes eredetű rákellenes polipeptidek fizikai sajátságaiban rejlő korlátok leküzdésére, terápiás potenciáljuk megjavítására ígéretesnek mutatkozik. A rákellenes peptidek célzott ectocalreticulint indukáló peptidekkel történő együttes alkalmazása e peptidek által szokványosan előidézett nem-immunogén sejthalált specifikus ráksejt-ellenes immunreakció kiváltására képes immunogén sejthalállá változtatja. A szisztémás adagolásukat és humán alkalmazásukat jelenleg még korlátozó tényezők leküzdhetőnek látszanak. Így e peptidekből potenciálisan új széles spektrumú, s teljesen új hatásmódú rákellenes szerek kifejlesztésére nyílt meg ígéretes lehetőség.

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