Authors: R. Elias 1 and E. Dias 1
View More View Less
  • 1 Azores University Global Changes, Climate and Meteorology Centre, Azorean Agricultural Technologies Research Centre, Agricultural Sciences Department Terra Chă 9701-851 Angra do Heroísmo, Azores Portugal
Restricted access

We assess if the structural and floristic diversity of Juniperus-Ilex forests from Pico Island (Azores) corresponds to a mosaic of different phases of a forest cycle, by identifying the phases of that cycle and the dynamic relations between them. Eight 100 m 2 plots were placed randomly in areas with structural and floristic differences but having in common the presence of live and/or dead individuals of the dominant tree species ( Juniperus brevifolia ). In each plot the number of seedlings, saplings, and adults as well as canopy height and width and maximum height of live Juniperus brevifolia and Ilex azorica adults were recorded. The floristic composition was determined in a 25 m 2 plot, placed inside each 100 m 2 plot. Juniperus-Ilex forests show a cyclic patch dynamic triggered by the senescence and death of even-aged individuals of J. brevifolia . In this forest cycle, five phases were identified, such as gap, building, mature, initial degenerative and final degenerative. The first two phases are dominated by J. brevifolia however in the degenerative phases I. azorica is the dominant tree species. The cycle may be divided into an upgrade series (comprising the first two phases) and a downgrade series (between the mature and final degenerative phases). In these forests there was no climax micro-succession detected since changes in the dominant tree species occur in the degenerative phases. This paper brings the first evidence for the existence of a forest cycle in Macaronesian forests.

  • Arévalo, J.R. and J.M. Fernández-Palacios. 1998. Tree-fall gap characteristics and regeneration in the laurel forest of Tenerife. J. Veg. Sci. 9: 297–306.

    Fernández-Palacios J.M. , 'Tree-fall gap characteristics and regeneration in the laurel forest of Tenerife ' (1998 ) 9 J. Veg. Sci. : 297 -306.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Arévalo, J.R. and J.M. Fernández-Palacios. 2000. Seed bank analysis of tree species in two stands of the Tenerife laurel forest (Canary Islands). Forest Ecol. Manage. 130: 177–185.

    Fernández-Palacios J.M. , 'Seed bank analysis of tree species in two stands of the Tenerife laurel forest (Canary Islands) ' (2000 ) 130 Forest Ecol. Manage. : 177 -185.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Arévalo, J.R. and J.M. Fernández-Palacios. 2003. Spatial patterns of trees and juveniles in a Laurel forest of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Plant Ecol . 165: 1–10.

    Fernández-Palacios J.M. , 'Spatial patterns of trees and juveniles in a Laurel forest of Tenerife, Canary Islands ' (2003 ) 165 Plant Ecol : 1 -10.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Azevedo, E.B. 1996. Modelação do clima insular à escala local — Modelo CIELO aplicado à ilha Terceira . Ph.D. Dissertation. Azores University, Angra do Heroísmo.

    Azevedo E.B. , '', in Modelação do clima insular à escala local — Modelo CIELO aplicado à ilha Terceira , (1996 ) -.

  • Azevedo, E.B., L.S. Pereira and B. Itier. 1999. Modelling the local climate in island environments: water balance applications. Agric. Water Manage . 40: 393–403.

    Itier B. , 'Modelling the local climate in island environments: water balance applications ' (1999 ) 40 Agric. Water Manage : 393 -403.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Barnes, B.V., D.R. Zak, S.R. Denton and S.H. Spurr. 1998. Forest Ecology , 4 th edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

    Spurr S.H. , '', in Forest Ecology , (1998 ) -.

  • Bobiec, A., H. Burgt, K. Meijer, C. Zuyderduyn, J. Haga and B. Vlaanderen. 2000. Rich deciduous forests in Bialowieza as a dynamic mosaic of developmental phases: premises for nature conservation and restoration management. Forest Ecol. Manage. 130: 159–175.

    Vlaanderen B. , 'Rich deciduous forests in Bialowieza as a dynamic mosaic of developmental phases: premises for nature conservation and restoration management ' (2000 ) 130 Forest Ecol. Manage. : 159 -175.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Borges, P.A.V., J.M. Lobo, E.B. Azevedo, C.S. Gaspar, C. Melo and L.V. Nunes. 2006. Invasibility and species richness of island endemic arthropods: a general model of endemic vs. exotic species. J. Biogeogr. 33: 169–187.

    Nunes L.V. , 'Invasibility and species richness of island endemic arthropods: a general model of endemic vs. exotic species ' (2006 ) 33 J. Biogeogr. : 169 -187.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Christensen, M. and J. Emborg. 1996. Biodiversity in natural versus managed forest in Denmark. Forest Ecol. Manage. 85: 47–51.

    Emborg J. , 'Biodiversity in natural versus managed forest in Denmark ' (1996 ) 85 Forest Ecol. Manage. : 47 -51.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dias, E. 1996. Vegetação natural dos Açores. Ecologia e sintaxonomia das florestas naturais . Ph.D. Dissertation. Azores University, Angra do Heroísmo.

    Dias E. , '', in Vegetação natural dos Açores. Ecologia e sintaxonomia das florestas naturais , (1996 ) -.

  • Dias, E., R.B. Elias and V. Nunes. 2004. Vegetation mapping and nature conservation: a case study in Terceira Island (Azores). Biodivers. Conserv. 13: 1519–1539.

    Nunes V. , 'Vegetation mapping and nature conservation: a case study in Terceira Island (Azores) ' (2004 ) 13 Biodivers. Conserv. : 1519 -1539.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Elias, R.B. 2007. Ecologia das florestas de Juniperus dos Açores . Ph.D. Dissertation, Azores University, Angra do Heroísmo.

    Elias R.B. , '', in Ecologia das florestas de Juniperus dos Açores , (2007 ) -.

  • Elias, R.B. and E. Dias. 2004. Primary succession on lava domes on Terceira (Azores). J. Veg. Sci. 15: 331–338.

    Dias E. , 'Primary succession on lava domes on Terceira (Azores) ' (2004 ) 15 J. Veg. Sci. : 331 -338.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Elias, R. B. and E. Dias. 2009. Gap dynamics and regeneration strategies in Juniperus-Laurus forests of the Azores Islands. Plant Ecol . 200: 179–189.

    Dias E. , 'Gap dynamics and regeneration strategies in Juniperus-Laurus forests of the Azores Islands ' (2009 ) 200 Plant Ecol : 179 -189.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Emborg, J. 1998. Understorey light conditions and regeneration with respect to the structural dynamics of a near-natural temperate deciduous forest in Denmark. Forest Ecol. Manage . 106: 83–95.

    Emborg J. , 'Understorey light conditions and regeneration with respect to the structural dynamics of a near-natural temperate deciduous forest in Denmark ' (1998 ) 106 Forest Ecol. Manage : 83 -95.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Emborg, J., M. Christensen and J. Heilmann-Clausen. 2000. The structural dynamics of Suserup Skov, a near-natural temperate deciduous forest in Denmark. Forest Ecol. Manage. 126: 173–189.

    Heilmann-Clausen J. , 'The structural dynamics of Suserup Skov, a near-natural temperate deciduous forest in Denmark ' (2000 ) 126 Forest Ecol. Manage. : 173 -189.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fernández-Palacios, J.M. and J.R. Arévalo. 1998. Regeneration strategies of tree species in the laurel forest of Tenerife (The Canary Islands). Plant Ecol. 137: 21–29.

    Arévalo J.R. , 'Regeneration strategies of tree species in the laurel forest of Tenerife (The Canary Islands) ' (1998 ) 137 Plant Ecol. : 21 -29.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Finzi, A.C., C.D. Canham and N.V. Breemen. 1998. Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: species effects on pH and cations. Ecol. Applic. 8: 447–454.

    Breemen N.V. , 'Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forests: species effects on pH and cations ' (1998 ) 8 Ecol. Applic. : 447 -454.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fonseca, R.C.B. and R.R. Rodrigues. 2000. Análise estrutural e aspectos do mosaico sucessional de uma floresta semidecídua em Botucatu, SP. Scientia Florestali s 57: 27–43.

    Rodrigues R.R. , 'Análise estrutural e aspectos do mosaico sucessional de uma floresta semidecídua em Botucatu, SP ' (2000 ) 57 Scientia Florestalis : 27 -43.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fonseca, R.C.B. and I.C.B. Fonseca. 2004. Utilização de métodos estatísticos multivariados na caracterização do mosaico sucessional em floresta semidecídual. Revista Árvore, Viçosa-MG 28:351–359.

    Fonseca I.C.B. , 'Utilização de métodos estatísticos multivariados na caracterização do mosaico sucessional em floresta semidecídual ' (2004 ) 28 Revista Árvore, Viçosa-MG : 351 -359.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Forcier, L.K. 1975. Reproductive strategies and the co-occurence of climax tree species. Science 189: 808–810.

    Forcier L.K. , 'Reproductive strategies and the co-occurence of climax tree species ' (1975 ) 189 Science : 808 -810.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • França, Z., J.V. Cruz, J.C. Nunes and V.H. Forjaz. 2003. Geologia dos Açores: uma perspectiva actual. Açoreana 10: 11–140.

    Forjaz V.H. , 'Geologia dos Açores: uma perspectiva actual ' (2003 ) 10 Açoreana : 11 -140.

  • Grassi, G., G. Minotta, R. Giannini and U. Bagnaresi. 2003. The structural dynamics of managed uneven-aged conifer stands in the Italian eastern Alps. Forest Ecol. Manage. 185: 225–237.

    Bagnaresi U. , 'The structural dynamics of managed uneven-aged conifer stands in the Italian eastern Alps ' (2003 ) 185 Forest Ecol. Manage. : 225 -237.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haggar, J.P. 1988. The structure, composition and status of the cloud forests of Pico Island in the Azores. Biol. Conserv. 46: 7–22.

    Haggar J.P. , 'The structure, composition and status of the cloud forests of Pico Island in the Azores ' (1988 ) 46 Biol. Conserv. : 7 -22.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Henderson, P.A. and R.M.H. Seaby. 1999. Community Analysis Package (version 1.41) . Pisces Conservation, Lymington.

    Seaby R.M.H. , '', in Community Analysis Package (version 1.41) , (1999 ) -.

  • Koop, H. and P. Hilgen. 1987. Forest dynamics and regeneration mosaic shifts in unexploited beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) stands at Fontainebleu (France). Forest Ecol. Manage. 20: 135–150.

    Hilgen P. , 'Forest dynamics and regeneration mosaic shifts in unexploited beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands at Fontainebleu (France) ' (1987 ) 20 Forest Ecol. Manage. : 135 -150.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Larcher, W. 1980. Physiological Pant Ecology , 2 nd ed. Springer, New York.

    Larcher W. , '', in Physiological Pant Ecology , (1980 ) -.

  • Lawesson, J.E. 1988. Stand-level dieback and regeneration of forests in the Galápagos Islands. Vegetatio 77: 87–93.

    Lawesson J.E. , 'Stand-level dieback and regeneration of forests in the Galápagos Islands ' (1988 ) 77 Vegetatio : 87 -93.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Liu, Q., X. Li, Z. Ma and N. Takeuchi. 2005. Monitoring forest dynamics using satellite imagery — a case study in the natural reserve of Changbai Mountain in China. Forest Ecol. Manage. 210: 25–37.

    Takeuchi N. , 'Monitoring forest dynamics using satellite imagery — a case study in the natural reserve of Changbai Mountain in China ' (2005 ) 210 Forest Ecol. Manage. : 25 -37.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lusk, C.H. 1996. Stand dynamics of the shade-tolerant conifers Podocarpus nubigena and Saxegothaea conspicua in Chilean temperate rain forest. J. Veg. Sci. 7: 549–558.

    Lusk C.H. , 'Stand dynamics of the shade-tolerant conifers Podocarpus nubigena and Saxegothaea conspicua in Chilean temperate rain forest ' (1996 ) 7 J. Veg. Sci. : 549 -558.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mueller-Dombois, D. 1986. Perspectives for an etiology of stand-level dieback. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17: 221–243.

    Mueller-Dombois D. , 'Perspectives for an etiology of stand-level dieback ' (1986 ) 17 Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. : 221 -243.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mueller-Dombois, D. 1987. Forest dynamics in Hawaii. Trends Ecol. Evol. 2(7): 216–220.

    Mueller-Dombois D. , 'Forest dynamics in Hawaii ' (1987 ) 2 Trends Ecol. Evol. : 216 -220.

  • Mueller-Dombois, D. 1999. Biodiversity and environmental gradients across the tropical Pacific Islands: a new strategy for research and conservation. Naturwissenschaften 86: 253–261.

    Mueller-Dombois D. , 'Biodiversity and environmental gradients across the tropical Pacific Islands: a new strategy for research and conservation ' (1999 ) 86 Naturwissenschaften : 253 -261.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mueller-Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology . John Wiley & Sons, London.

    Ellenberg H. , '', in Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology , (1974 ) -.

  • Miyadokoro, T., N. Nishimura and S. Yamamoto. 2003. Population structure and spatial patterns of major trees in a subalpine old-growth coniferous forest, central Japan. Forest Ecol. Manage. 182: 259–272.

    Yamamoto S. , 'Population structure and spatial patterns of major trees in a subalpine old-growth coniferous forest, central Japan ' (2003 ) 182 Forest Ecol. Manage. : 259 -272.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rademacher, C., C. Neuert, V. Grundmann, C. Wissel and V. Grimm. 2004. Reconstructing spatiotemporal dynamics of central European natural beech forests: the rule-based forest model BEFORE. Forest Ecol. Manage. 194: 349–368.

    Grimm V. , 'Reconstructing spatiotemporal dynamics of central European natural beech forests: the rule-based forest model BEFORE ' (2004 ) 194 Forest Ecol. Manage. : 349 -368.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rebertus, A. J. and T.T. Veblen. 1993. Structure and tree-fall gap dynamics of old-growth Nothofagus forests in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. J. Veg. Sci. 4: 641–654.

    Veblen T.T. , 'Structure and tree-fall gap dynamics of old-growth Nothofagus forests in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina ' (1993 ) 4 J. Veg. Sci. : 641 -654.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Rivas-Martínez, S., T. Díaz, F. Fernández-González, J. Izco, J. Loidi, M. Lousã and A. Penas. 2002. Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the syntaxonomical checklist of 2001. Part II. Itinera Geobot. 15(2): 433–922.

    Penas A. , 'Vascular plant communities of Spain and Portugal. Addenda to the syntaxonomical checklist of 2001. Part II ' (2002 ) 15 Itinera Geobot. : 433 -922.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schäfer, H. 2005. Flora of the Azores — A Field Guide , 2 nd ed. Margraf Publishers. Weikersheim.

    Schäfer H. , '', in Flora of the Azores — A Field Guide , (2005 ) -.

  • ter Braak, C.J.F. and P. Šmilauer. 1998. CANOCO Reference manual and user’s guide to Canoco for Windows. Software for canonical community ordination (version 4.0) . Microcomputer Power, New York.

    Šmilauer P. , '', in CANOCO Reference manual and user’s guide to Canoco for Windows. Software for canonical community ordination (version 4.0) , (1998 ) -.

  • van der Maarel, E. 1988. Vegetation dynamics: patterns in time and space. Vegetatio 77: 7–19.

    Maarel E. , 'Vegetation dynamics: patterns in time and space ' (1988 ) 77 Vegetatio : 7 -19.

  • Veblen, T.T. 1992. Regeneration dynamics. In: D.C. Glenn-Lewin, R.K. Peet and T.T. Veblen (eds.), Plant Succession: Theory and Prediction . Chapman & Hall, London. pp. 152–187.

    Veblen T.T. , '', in Plant Succession: Theory and Prediction , (1992 ) -.

  • Watt, A.S. 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. J. Ecol. 35: 1–22.

    Watt A.S. , 'Pattern and process in the plant community ' (1947 ) 35 J. Ecol. : 1 -22.

  • Whitmore, T.C. 1989. Canopy gaps and the two major groups of forest trees. Ecology 70: 536–538.

    Whitmore T.C. , 'Canopy gaps and the two major groups of forest trees ' (1989 ) 70 Ecology : 536 -538.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yamashita, A., J. Sano and S. Yamamoto. 2002. Impact of a strong typhoon on the structure and dynamics of an old-growth Beech ( Fagus crenata ) forest, southwestern Japan. Folia Geobot . 37:5–16.

    Yamamoto S. , 'Impact of a strong typhoon on the structure and dynamics of an old-growth Beech (Fagus crenata) forest, southwestern Japan ' (2002 ) 37 Folia Geobot : 5 -16.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zang, R, J. Tao and C. Li. 2005. Within community patch dynamics in a tropical montane rain forest of Hainan Island, South China. Acta Oecol. 28: 39–48.

    Li C. , 'Within community patch dynamics in a tropical montane rain forest of Hainan Island, South China ' (2005 ) 28 Acta Oecol. : 39 -48.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zar, J. 1996. Biostatistical Analysis , 3 rd ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

    Zar J. , '', in Biostatistical Analysis , (1996 ) -.