Authors:
M. Gioria University College Dublin School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland

Search for other papers by M. Gioria in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
G. Bacaro University of Siena BIOCONNET, Biodiversity and Conservation Network, Department of Environmental Science “G. Sarfatti” Via P.A. Mattioli 4 53100 Siena Italy

Search for other papers by G. Bacaro in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
J. Feehan University College Dublin School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland

Search for other papers by J. Feehan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Ponds contribute substantially to the maintenance of regional biodiversity. Despite a growing body of literature on biotic-abiotic relationships in ponds, only few generalizations have been made. The difficulty in identifying the main drivers of pond biodiversity has been typically attributed to the heterogeneity of the local and regional conditions characterizing ponds. However, little is known on how the use of different analytical approaches and community response variables affects the results of analysis of community patterns in ponds. Here, we used a range of methods to model the response of water beetle and plant community data (species richness and composition) to a set of 12 environmental and management variables in 45 farmland ponds. The strength of biotic-abiotic relationships and the contribution of each variable to the overall explained variance in the reduced models varied substantially, for both plants and beetles, depending on the method used to analyze the data. Models of species richness included a lower number of variables and explained a larger amount of variation compared to models of species composition, reflecting the higher complexity characterizing multispecies response matrices. Only two variables were never selected by any of the model, indicative of the heterogeneity characterizing pond ecosystems, while some models failed to select important variables. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of multiple modeling approaches when attempting to identify the principal determinants of biodiversity for each response variable, including at least a non-parametric approach, as well as the use of both species richness and composition as the response variables. The results of this modeling exercise are discussed in relation to their practical use in the formulation of conservation strategies.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Material
  • Anderson, M.J. 2001. Permutation tests for univariate or multivariate analysis of variance and regression. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58: 626–639.

    Anderson M.J. , 'Permutation tests for univariate or multivariate analysis of variance and regression ' (2001 ) 58 Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. : 626 -639 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anderson, M.J., R.N. Gorley and K.R. Clarke. 2008. PERMANOVA1 for PRIMER. Guide to software and statistical methods. PRIMER-E Ltd., Plymouth, UK.

    Clarke K.R. , '', in PERMANOVA1 for PRIMER. Guide to software and statistical methods , (2008 ) -.

  • Biggs, J., P. Williams, M. Whitfield, P. Nicolet and A. Weatherby. 2005. 15 Years of pond assessment in Britain: results and lessons learned from the work of Pond Conservation. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshwater Ecosyst. 15: 693–714.

    Weatherby A. , '15 Years of pond assessment in Britain: results and lessons learned from the work of Pond Conservation ' (2005 ) 15 Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshwater Ecosyst. : 693 -714 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bilton, D.T., L. McAbendroth, A. Bedford and P.M. Ramsay. 2006. How wide to cast the net? Cross-taxon congruence of species richness, community similarity and indicator taxa in ponds. Freshwater Biol. 51: 578–590.

    Ramsay P.M. , 'How wide to cast the net? Cross-taxon congruence of species richness, community similarity and indicator taxa in ponds ' (2006 ) 51 Freshwater Biol. : 578 -590 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Blanchet, F.G., P. Legendre and D. Borcard. 2008. Forward selection of explanatory variables. Ecology 89: 2623–2632.

    Borcard D. , 'Forward selection of explanatory variables ' (2008 ) 89 Ecology : 2623 -2632 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bray, J. and J. Curtis. 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of Southern Wisconsin. Ecol. Monog. 27: 325–349.

    Curtis J. , 'An ordination of the upland forest communities of Southern Wisconsin ' (1957 ) 27 Ecol. Monog. : 325 -349 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Burnham, K.P. and D.R. Anderson. 2004. Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Sociol. Method. Res. 33: 261–304.

    Anderson D.R. , 'Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection ' (2004 ) 33 Sociol. Method. Res. : 261 -304 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Céréghino, R., J. Biggs, B. Oertli and S. Declerck. 2008. The ecology of European ponds: defining the characteristics of a neglected freshwater habitat. Hydrobiologia 597: 1–6.

    Declerck S. , 'The ecology of European ponds: defining the characteristics of a neglected freshwater habitat ' (2008 ) 597 Hydrobiologia : 1 -6 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Clarke, R.K. 1993. Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Austral. Ecol. 18: 117–143.

    Clarke R.K. , 'Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure ' (1993 ) 18 Austral. Ecol. : 117 -143 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Clarke, K.R. and M. Ainsworth. 1993. A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 92: 205–219.

    Ainsworth M. , 'A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables ' (1993 ) 92 Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. : 205 -219 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Clarke, R.K. and R. Warwick. 2001. Change in Marine Communities: an Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation. PRIMER-E, Plymouth.

    Warwick R. , '', in Change in Marine Communities: an Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation , (2001 ) -.

  • Crawley, M.J. 1993. Glim for Ecologists. Blackwell, Oxford.

    Crawley M.J. , '', in Glim for Ecologists , (1993 ) -.

  • Fairchild, G.W., J. Cruz, A.M. Faulds, A.E.Z Short and J.F. Matta. 2003. Microhabitat and landscape influences on aquatic beetle assemblages in a cluster of temporary and permanent ponds. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 22: 224–240.

    Matta J.F. , 'Microhabitat and landscape influences on aquatic beetle assemblages in a cluster of temporary and permanent ponds ' (2003 ) 22 J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. : 224 -240 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fleishman, E., R. Noss and B.R. Noon. 2006. Utility and limitations of species richness metrics for conservation planning. Ecol. Indic. 6: 543–553.

    Noon B.R. , 'Utility and limitations of species richness metrics for conservation planning ' (2006 ) 6 Ecol. Indic. : 543 -553 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Foster, G.N., A.P. Foster, M.D. Eyre and D.T. Bilton. 1990. Classification of water beetle assemblages in arable fenland and ranking of sites in relation to conservation value. Freshwater Biol. 22: 343–354.

    Bilton D.T. , 'Classification of water beetle assemblages in arable fenland and ranking of sites in relation to conservation value ' (1990 ) 22 Freshwater Biol. : 343 -354 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Foster, G.N., B.H. Nelson, D.T. Bilton, D.A. Lott, R. Merritt, R.S. Weyl and M.D. Eyre. 1992. A classification and evaluation of Irish water beetle assemblages. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshwater Ecosyst. 2: 185–208.

    Eyre M.D. , 'A classification and evaluation of Irish water beetle assemblages ' (1992 ) 2 Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshwater Ecosyst. : 185 -208 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gee, J.H.R., B.D Smith., K.M. Lee and S.W. Griffiths. 1997. The ecological basis of freshwater pond management for biodiversity. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshwater Ecosyst. 7: 91–104.

    Griffiths S.W. , 'The ecological basis of freshwater pond management for biodiversity ' (1997 ) 7 Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshwater Ecosyst. : 91 -104 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gioria, M., A.P. Schaffers, G. Bacaro and J. Feehan. 2010. Predicting the conservation value of farmland ponds: use of vascular plants as a surrogate group. Biol. Conserv. 143: 1125–1133.

    Feehan J. , 'Predicting the conservation value of farmland ponds: use of vascular plants as a surrogate group ' (2010 ) 143 Biol. Conserv. : 1125 -1133 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gower, J.C. 1971. Statistical methods of comparing different multivariate analyses of the same data. In: F.R. Hodson, D.G. Kendall and P. Tautu (eds.), Mathematics in the Archaeological and Historical Sciences. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. pp. 138–149.

    Gower J.C. , '', in Mathematics in the Archaeological and Historical Sciences , (1971 ) -.

  • Guisan, A., S.B. Weiss and A.D. Weiss. 1999. GLM versus CCA spatial modeling of plant species distribution. Plant Ecol. 143: 107–122.

    Weiss A.D. , 'GLM versus CCA spatial modeling of plant species distribution ' (1999 ) 143 Plant Ecol. : 107 -122 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Guisan, A. and N.E. Zimmermann. 2000. Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecol. Model. 135: 147–186.

    Zimmermann N.E. , 'Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology ' (2000 ) 135 Ecol. Model. : 147 -186 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Guthery, F.S., L.A. Brennan, M.J. Peterson and J.J. Lusk. 2005. Information theory in wildlife science: critique and viewpoint. J. Wildl. Manage. 69: 457–465.

    Lusk J.J. , 'Information theory in wildlife science: critique and viewpoint ' (2005 ) 69 J. Wildl. Manage. : 457 -465 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hastie, T.J. and D. Pregibon. 1993. Generalized linear models. In J.M. Chambers and T.J. Hastie (eds.), Statistical Models in S. Chapman and Hall London, UK. pp. 194–244.

    Pregibon D. , '', in Statistical Models in S , (1993 ) -.

  • Heino, J. 2000. Lentic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure along gradients in spatial heterogeneity, habitat size and water chemistry. Hydrobiologia 418: 229–242.

    Heino J. , 'Lentic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure along gradients in spatial heterogeneity, habitat size and water chemistry ' (2000 ) 418 Hydrobiologia : 229 -242 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jackson, D.A. 1995. PROTEST: a Procrustean randomization test of community environment concordance. Ecoscience 2: 297–303.

    Jackson D.A. , 'PROTEST: a Procrustean randomization test of community environment concordance ' (1995 ) 2 Ecoscience : 297 -303 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jeffries, M.J. 2008. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of macrophyte communities in thirty small, temporary ponds over a period of ten years. Ecography 31: 765–775.

    Jeffries M.J. , 'The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of macrophyte communities in thirty small, temporary ponds over a period of ten years ' (2008 ) 31 Ecography : 765 -775 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Legendre, P. and L. Legendre. 1998. Numerical Ecology. 2nd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

    Legendre L. , '', in Numerical Ecology , (1998 ) -.

  • Mantel, N.A. 1967. The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Res. 27: 209–220.

    Mantel N.A. , 'The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach ' (1967 ) 27 Cancer Res. : 209 -220 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McArdle, B.H. and M.J. Anderson. 2001. Fitting multivariate models to semi-metric distances: a comment on distance-based redundancy analysis. Ecology 82: 290–297.

    Anderson M.J. , 'Fitting multivariate models to semi-metric distances: a comment on distance-based redundancy analysis ' (2001 ) 82 Ecology : 290 -297 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McCullagh, P. and J.A. Nelder. 1989. Generalized Linear Models. Chapman and Hall, London.

    Nelder J.A. , '', in Generalized Linear Models , (1989 ) -.

  • Menetrey, N., L. Sager, B. Oertli and J.-B. Lachavanne. 2005. Looking for metrics to assess the trophic state of ponds. Macroinvertebrates and amphibians. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshwater Ecosyst. 15: 653–664.

    Lachavanne J.-B. , 'Looking for metrics to assess the trophic state of ponds. Macroinvertebrates and amphibians ' (2005 ) 15 Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshwater Ecosyst : 653 -664 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Montgomery, D.C. and L.A. Peck. 1982. Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

    Peck L.A. , '', in Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis , (1982 ) -.

  • Naranjo, S.A., J.L. Carballo and J.C. Garcia-Gomez. 1996. Effects of environmental stress on ascidian populations in Algeciras Bay (southern Spain). Possible marine bioindicators? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 144: 119–131.

    Garcia-Gomez J.C. , 'Effects of environmental stress on ascidian populations in Algeciras Bay (southern Spain). Possible marine bioindicators? ' (1996 ) 144 Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. : 119 -131 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Nicolet, P., J. Biggs, G. Fox, M.J. Hodson, C. Reynolds, M. Whitfield and P. Williams. 2004. The wetland plant and macroinvertebrate assemblages of temporary ponds in England and Wales. Biol. Conserv. 120: 261–278.

    Williams P. , 'The wetland plant and macroinvertebrate assemblages of temporary ponds in England and Wales ' (2004 ) 120 Biol. Conserv. : 261 -278 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Oertli, B., D.A. Joye, E. Castella, R. Juge, D. Cambin and J.-B. Lachavanne. 2002. Does size matter? The relationship between pond area and biodiversity. Biol. Conserv. 104: 59–70.

    Lachavanne J.-B. , 'Does size matter? The relationship between pond area and biodiversity ' (2002 ) 104 Biol. Conserv. : 59 -70 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pakulnicka, J. 2008. The formation of water beetle fauna in anthropogenic water bodies. Oceanol. Hydrobiol. St. 37: 31–42.

    Pakulnicka J. , 'The formation of water beetle fauna in anthropogenic water bodies ' (2008 ) 37 Oceanol. Hydrobiol. St. : 31 -42 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Peres-Neto, P.R. and D.A. Jackson. 2001. How well do multivariate data sets match? The robustness and flexibility of a Procrustean superimposition approach over the Mantel test. Oecologia 129:169–178.

    Jackson D.A. , 'How well do multivariate data sets match? The robustness and flexibility of a Procrustean superimposition approach over the Mantel test ' (2001 ) 129 Oecologia : 169 -178 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • R Development Core Team. 2010. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.

    '', in R: A language and environment for statistical computing , (2010 ) -.

  • Rodwell, J.S. 1995. British Plant Communities, vol. 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Rodwell J.S. , '', in British Plant Communities, vol. 4 , (1995 ) -.

  • Sætersdal, M., I. Gjerde, H.H. Blom, P.G. Ihlen, E.W. Myreseth, R. Pommeresche, J. Skartveit, T. Solhøyb and O. Aasc. 2003. Vascular plant as a surrogate species group in complementary site selection for bryophytes, macro-lichens, spiders, carabids, staphylinids, snails, and wood living polypore fungi in a northern forest. Biol. Conserv. 115: 21–31.

    Aasc O. , 'Vascular plant as a surrogate species group in complementary site selection for bryophytes, macro-lichens, spiders, carabids, staphylinids, snails, and wood living polypore fungi in a northern forest ' (2003 ) 115 Biol. Conserv. : 21 -31 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schaffers, A.P., I.P. Raemakers, K.V. Sýkora and C.J.F. ter Braak. 2008. Arthropod assemblages are best predicted by plant species composition. Ecology 89: 782–794.

    Braak C.J.F. , 'Arthropod assemblages are best predicted by plant species composition ' (2008 ) 89 Ecology : 782 -794 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schwarz, G. 1978. Estimating the dimension of a model. Ann. Stat. 6: 461–464.

    Schwarz G. , 'Estimating the dimension of a model ' (1978 ) 6 Ann. Stat. : 461 -464 .

  • Studinski, J.M. and S.A. Grubbs. 2007. Environmental factors affecting the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in temporary ponds in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, USA. Hydrobiologia 575: 211–220.

    Grubbs S.A. , 'Environmental factors affecting the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in temporary ponds in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, USA ' (2007 ) 575 Hydrobiologia : 211 -220 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Su, J.C., D.M., Debinski, M.E. Jakubauskas and K. Kindscher. 2004. Beyond species richness: community similarity as a measure of cross-taxon congruence for coarse-filter conservation. Conserv. Biol. 18: 167–173.

    Kindscher K. , 'Beyond species richness: community similarity as a measure of cross-taxon congruence for coarse-filter conservation ' (2004 ) 18 Conserv. Biol. : 167 -173 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • ter Braak, C.J.F. 1986. Canonical correspondence analysis: A new eigenvariable technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology 67: 1167–1179.

    Braak C.J.F. , 'Canonical correspondence analysis: A new eigenvariable technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis ' (1986 ) 67 Ecology : 1167 -1179 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Thuiller, W. 2003. BIOMOD: Optimising predictions of species distributions and projecting potential future shifts under global change. Glob. Change Biol. 9: 1353–1362.

    Thuiller W. , 'BIOMOD: Optimising predictions of species distributions and projecting potential future shifts under global change ' (2003 ) 9 Glob. Change Biol. : 1353 -1362 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Williams, P., M. Whitfield, J. Biggs, S. Bray, G. Fox, P. Nicolet and D. Sear. 2004. Comparative biodiversity of rivers, streams, ditches and ponds in an agricultural landscape in Southern England. Biol. Conserv. 115: 329–341.

    Sear D. , 'Comparative biodiversity of rivers, streams, ditches and ponds in an agricultural landscape in Southern England ' (2004 ) 115 Biol. Conserv. : 329 -341 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wood, P.J., M.T. Greenwood and M.D. Agnew. 2003. Pond biodiversity and habitat loss in the UK. Area 35: 206–216.

    Agnew M.D. , 'Pond biodiversity and habitat loss in the UK ' (2003 ) 35 Area : 206 -216 .

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Collapse
  • Expand

To see the editorial board, please visit the website of Springer Nature.

Manuscript Submission: HERE

For subscription options, please visit the website of Springer Nature.

Community Ecology
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2000
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
3
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
Founder's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1585-8553 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2756 (Online)