Author: A. I. Engloner1
View More View Less
  • 1 Danube Research Institute, Karolina 29, Budapest H-1113, Hungary
Restricted access

In aquatic macrophyte ecology, species abundance is usually estimated by cover values expressed on the ordinal scale. Recently, there has been increasing demand for three-dimensional estimates of plant abundance. To extend ordinal cover data into three dimensions, a new formula is proposed which considers the vertical developmental types of plants. In this, a constant k is used with three different values reflecting three groups of macrophytes, namely the “free floating leaved”; “rooted, floating leaved” and “submersed leaved” species. By using the new formula, inappropriate conversion and evaluation of ordinal abundance data occurring frequently in the literature may also be avoided.

  • Braun-Blanquet, J. 1964. Pflanzensoziologie. Springer Verlag, Wien, New York.

  • Engloner, A.I. 2012. Alternative ways to use and evaluate Kohler’s ordinal scale to assess aquatic macrophyte abundance. Ecol. Ind. 20: 238243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Engloner, A.I., E. Szalma, K. Sipos and M. Dinka. 2013. Occurrence and habitat preference of aquatic macrophytes in a large river channel. Community Ecol. 14: 243248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Standard EN 14184 (2003). Water quality—guidance standard for the surveying of aquatic macrophytes in running waters. Comite´ Europe´enne de Normalisation, Brussels.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Janauer, G.A. 2003. Methods. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 147 (Large Rivers, 14): 916.

  • Janauer, G.A. and E. Heindl. 1998. Die Schatzskala nach Kohler: Zur Gültigkeit der Funktion f(x) = ax3 als Mas für die Pflanzenmenge von Makrophyten. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Österreich. 135: 117128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kohler, A. 1978. Methoden der Kartierung von Flora und vegetation von Süßwasserbiotopen. Landschaft Stadt. 10: 7385.

  • Kohler, A. and G.A. Janauer. 1995. Zur Methodik der Untersuchung von aquatischen Makrophyten in Fließgewassern. In C. Steinberg, H. Bernhardt and H. Klapper (eds.), Handbuch Angewandte Limnologie. Ecomed Verlag, Landsberg/Lech. pp. 322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kohler, A., H. Vollrath and E. Beisl. 1971. Zur Verbreitung, Vergesellschaftung und Ökologie der Gefaß-Makrophyten im Fließ wassersystem Moosach (Münchener Ebene). Arch. Hydrobiol. 69: 333356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pall, K. and G.A. Janauer. 1995. Die Makrophytenvegetation von FIusstauen am Beispiel der Donau zwischen FIus-km 2552,0 und 2511,8 in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 101 (Large Rivers, 9): 91109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pall, K. and V. Moser. 2009. Austrian Index Macrophytes (AIM-Module 1) for lakes: a Water Framework Directive compilant assessment system for lakes using aquatic macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 633: 83104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Podani, J. 2005. Multivariate exploratory analysis of ordinal data in ecology: pitfalls, problems and solutions. J. Veg. Sci. 15: 497510.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Podani, J. 2006. Braun-Blanquet’s legacy and data analysis in vegetation science. J. Veg. Sci. 17: 113117.

  • Schaumburg, J., C. Schranz, J. Foerster, A. Gutowski, G. Hofmann, P. Meilinger, S. Schneider and U. Schmedtje. 2004. Ecological classification of macrophytes and phytobenthos for rivers in Germany according to the Water Framework Directive. Limnologica 34: 283301.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Søndergaard, M., L. S. Johansson, T. L. Lauridsen, T. B. Jørgensen, L. Liboriussen and E. Jeppesen. 2010. Submerged macrophytes as indicators of the ecological quality of lakes. Freshwater Biol. 55: 893908.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Click HERE for submission guidelines.

Manuscript submission: COMEC Manuscript Submission


Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Podani, János

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Jordán, Ferenc

Honorary Editor(s): Orlóci, László

Editorial Board

  • Madhur Anand, CAN (forest ecology, computational ecology, and ecological complexity)
  • S. Bagella, ITA (temporal dynamics, including succession, community level patterns of species richness and diversity, experimental studies of plant, animal and microbial communities, plant communities of the Mediterranean)
  • P. Batáry, HUN (landscape ecology, agroecology, ecosystem services)
  • P. A. V. Borges, PRT (community level patterns of species richness and diversity, sampling in theory and practice)
  • A. Davis, GER (supervised learning, multitrophic interactions, food webs, multivariate analysis, ecological statistics, experimental design, fractals, parasitoids, species diversity, community assembly, ticks, biodiversity, climate change, biological networks, cranes, olfactometry, evolution)
  • Z. Elek, HUN (insect ecology, invertebrate conservation, population dynamics, especially of long-term field studies, insect sampling)
  • T. Kalapos, HUN (community level plant ecophysiology, grassland ecology, vegetation-soil relationship)
  • G. M. Kovács, HUN (microbial ecology, plant-fungus interactions, mycorrhizas)
  • W. C. Liu,TWN (community-based ecological theory and modelling issues, temporal dynamics, including succession, trophic interactions, competition, species response to the environment)
  • L. Mucina, AUS (vegetation survey, syntaxonomy, evolutionary community ecology, assembly rules, global vegetation patterns, mediterranean ecology)
  • P. Ódor, HUN (plant communities, bryophyte ecology, numerical methods)
  • F. Rigal, FRA (island biogeography, macroecology, functional diversity, arthropod ecology)
  • D. Rocchini, ITA (biodiversity, multiple scales, spatial scales, species distribution, spatial ecology, remote sensing, ecological informatics, computational ecology)
  • F. Samu, HUN (landscape ecology, biological control, generalist predators, spiders, arthropods, conservation biology, sampling methods)
  • U. Scharler, ZAF (ecological networks, food webs, estuaries, marine, mangroves, stoichiometry, temperate, subtropical)
  • D. Schmera, HUN (aquatic communities, functional diversity, ecological theory)
  • M. Scotti, GER (community-based ecological theory and modelling issues, trophic interactions, competition, species response to the environment, ecological networks)
  • B. Tóthmérész, HUN (biodiversity, soil zoology, spatial models, macroecology, ecological modeling)
  • S. Wollrab, GER (aquatic ecology, food web dynamics, plankton ecology, predator-prey interactions)


Advisory Board

  • S. Bartha, HUN
  • S.L. Collins, USA
  • T. Czárán, HUN
  • E. Feoli, ITA
  • N. Kenkel, CAN
  • J. Lepš, CZE
  • S. Mazzoleni, ITA
  • Cs. Moskát, HUN
  • B. Oborny, HUN
  • M.W. Palmer, USA
  • G.P. Patil, USA
  • V. de Patta Pillar, BRA
  • C. Ricotta, ITA
  • Á. Szentesi, HUN



Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Biological Abstracts
  • BIOSIS Previews
  • CAB Abstracts
  • Biology & Environmental Sciences
  • Elsevier/Geo Abstracts
  • Science Citation Index Expanded
  • Zoological Abstracts



Community Ecology
Language English
Size A4
Year of
per Year
per Year
Founder Akadémiai Kiadó
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11.
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 1585-8553 (Print)
ISSN 1588-2756 (Online)