View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Biology, Laurentian University 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
  • 2 Department of Biology, Laurentian University 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
Restricted access

We sought to compare the efficacy of the stationary Markov model and conventional ordination techniques in describing compositional and structural changes in forest communities along natural and manmade spatial gradients at two scales, local and regional. Vegetation abundance and structure data are from six sites spanning a spatial gradient in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forests near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Ordination did not detect slope-related local gradients despite the general trend that, as distance from the pollution source increases, vegetation along the slopes begins to display Markovian spatial dynamics. We suggest that this is due to information loss resulting from static ordination analyses: information regarding transitions between observations along the natural ordering of quadrats is not maintained. Both ordination techniques and the Markov analyses detected strong regional pollution-induced gradients in abundance and structure.

  • Orlóci, L. 1978. Multivariate Analysis in Vegetation Research. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague.

    Multivariate Analysis in Vegetation Research , ().

  • Bridge, S.R.J. and E.A. Johnson. 2000. Geomorphic principles of terrain organization and vegetation gradients. J. Veg. Sci. 11: 57-70.

    'Geomorphic principles of terrain organization and vegetation gradients ' () 11 J. Veg. Sci. : 57 -70.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Logofet, D.O. and E.V. Lesnaya. 2000. The mathematics of Markov models: what Markov chains can really predict in forest successions. Ecol. Model. 126:285-298.

    'The mathematics of Markov models: what Markov chains can really predict in forest successions ' () 126 Ecol. Model. : 285 -298.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McArdle, B.H. and M.J. Anderson. 2001. Fitting multivariate models to community data: a comment on distance-based redundancy analysis. Ecology 82:290-297.

    'Fitting multivariate models to community data: a comment on distance-based redundancy analysis ' () 82 Ecology : 290 -297.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McAuliffe, J.R. 1988. Markovian dynamics of simple and complex desert plant communities. Am. Nat. 131:459-490.

    'Markovian dynamics of simple and complex desert plant communities ' () 131 Am. Nat. : 459 -490.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Horn, H.S. 1975. Markovian properties of forest succession, in: M. Cody and J. Diamond (eds.), Ecology and Evolution of Communities. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, pp. 196-211.

    Markovian properties of forest succession , () 196 -211.

  • Kenkel, N.C. 1993. Modeling Markovian dependence in populations of Aralia nudicaulis. Ecology 74:1700-1706.

    'Modeling Markovian dependence in populations of Aralia nudicaulis ' () 74 Ecology : 1700 -1706.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Korotkov, V.N., D.O. Logofet and M. Loreau. 2001. Succession in mixed boreal forest of Russia: Markov models and non-Markov effects. Ecol. Model. 142:25-38.

    'Succession in mixed boreal forest of Russia: Markov models and non-Markov effects ' () 142 Ecol. Model. : 25 -38.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Legendre P. and L. Legendre. 2000. Numerical Ecology. 2nd Edition Elsevier. Amsterdam.

    Numerical Ecology , ().

  • Legg, C.J. 1980. A Markovian approach to the study of heath vegetation dynamics. Bull. Ecol. 11:393-404.

    'A Markovian approach to the study of heath vegetation dynamics ' () 11 Bull. Ecol. : 393 -404.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Linzon, S.N. 1958. The influence of smelter fumes on the growth of white pine in the Sudbury region. Joint Publication of the Ontario Dep. of Lands and Forests and the Ontario Dep. of Mines, Toronto.

    The influence of smelter fumes on the growth of white pine in the Sudbury region , ().

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lippe, E., J.T. De Smidt and D.C. Glenn-Lewin. 1985. Markov models and succession: a test from a heathland in the Netherlands. J. Ecol. 73:775-791.

    'Markov models and succession: a test from a heathland in the Netherlands ' () 73 J. Ecol. : 775 -791.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lischke, H. 2001. New developments in forest modelling: convergence between applied and theoretical approaches. Natural Resources Modelling 14:71-102.

    'New developments in forest modelling: convergence between applied and theoretical approaches ' () 14 Natural Resources Modelling : 71 -102.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Binkley, C.S. 1980. Is succession in hardwood forests a stationary Markov process? Forest Science 26:566-570.

    'Is succession in hardwood forests a stationary Markov process ' () 26 Forest Science : 566 -570.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Borcard, D., P. Legendre and P. Drapeau. 1992. Partialling out the spatial component of ecological variation. Ecology 73:1045-1055.

    'Partialling out the spatial component of ecological variation ' () 73 Ecology : 1045 -1055.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Li, B-L. 1995. Stability analysis of a nonhomogeneous Markovian landscape model. Ecol. Model. 82:247-256.

    'Stability analysis of a nonhomogeneous Markovian landscape model ' () 82 Ecol. Model. : 247 -256.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Orlóci, L., M. Anand and X. He. 1993. Markov chain: a realistic model for temporal coenosere? Biometrie-Praximetrie 33:7-26.

    'Markov chain: a realistic model for temporal coenosere ' () 33 Biometrie-Praximetrie : 7 -26.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Waggoner, P.E. and G.R. Stephens. 1970. Transition probabilities for a forest. Nature 225:1160-1161.

    'Transition probabilities for a forest ' () 225 Nature : 1160 -1161.

  • Podani, J., and I. Miklós. 2002. Resemblance coefficients and the horseshoe effect in principal coordinates analysis. Ecology 83:3331-3343.

    'Resemblance coefficients and the horseshoe effect in principal coordinates analysis ' () 83 Ecology : 3331 -3343.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • van Hulst, R. 1979. On the dynamics of vegetation: Markov chains as models of succession. Vegetatio 40:3-14.

    'On the dynamics of vegetation: Markov chains as models of succession ' () 40 Vegetatio : 3 -14.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bugmann, H., M. Linder, P. Lasch, M. Flechsig, B. Ebert and C. Wolfgang. 2000. Scaling issues in forest succession modelling. Climatic Change 44:265-289.

    'Scaling issues in forest succession modelling ' () 44 Climatic Change : 265 -289.

  • Culver, D.C. 1981. On using Horn's Markov succession model. Am. Nat. 117: 572-574.

    'On using Horn's Markov succession model ' () 117 Am. Nat. : 572 -574.

  • De'ath, G. 1999. Principal curves: a new technique for indirect and direct gradient analysis. Ecology 80:2237-2253.

    'Principal curves: a new technique for indirect and direct gradient analysis ' () 80 Ecology : 2237 -2253.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Deutschman, D.H., S.A. Levin, C. Devine and L.A. Buttel. 1997. Scaling from Trees to Forest: analysis of a complex simulation model. Science 277:1688.

    'Scaling from Trees to Forest: analysis of a complex simulation model ' () 277 Science : 1688.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Doledec, S., D. Chessel and C. Gimaret-Carpentier. 2000. Niche separation in community analysis: a new method. Ecology 81:2914-2927.

    'Niche separation in community analysis: a new method ' () 81 Ecology : 2914 -2927.

  • Freedman, B. and T.C. Hutchinson. 1980a. Long-term effects of smelter pollution at Sudbury, Ontario, on forest community composition. Can. J. Bot. 58:2123-2140.

    'Long-term effects of smelter pollution at Sudbury, Ontario, on forest community composition ' () 58 Can. J. Bot. : 2123 -2140.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Freedman, B. and T.C. Hutchinson. 1980b. Pollutant inputs from the atmosphere and accumulations in soil and vegetation near a nickel-copper smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada Can. J. Bot. 58:108-132.

    'Pollutant inputs from the atmosphere and accumulations in soil and vegetation near a nickel-copper smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada ' () 58 Can. J. Bot. : 108 -132.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gauch, H.G. and R.H. Whittaker. 1972. Comparison of ordination techniques. Ecology 53:868-875.

    'Comparison of ordination techniques ' () 53 Ecology : 868 -875.

  • Gunn, J.M. ed., 1995. Restoration and Recovery of an Industrial Region: Progress in Restoring the Smelter-Damaged Landscape near Sudbury, Canada. Springer-Verlag, New York.

    Restoration and Recovery of an Industrial Region: Progress in Restoring the Smelter-Damaged Landscape near Sudbury, Canada , ().

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hill, M.O. 1973. Reciprocal averaging: an eigenvector method of ordination. J. Ecol. 61:37-249.

    'Reciprocal averaging: an eigenvector method of ordination ' () 61 J. Ecol. : 37 -249.

  • Anand, M., B. Tucker and R. Desrochers. 2002. Dynamics of ecological complexity along a man-made perturbation gradient: assessment of community complexity. In: Modeling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution, WIT Press, Southampton, Boston.

    Dynamics of ecological complexity along a man-made perturbation gradient: assessment of community complexity , ().

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Archambault, D.J. and K. Winterhalder. 1995. Metal tolerance in Agrostis scabra from the Sudbury, Ontario, area. Can. J. Bot 73:766-775.

    'Metal tolerance in Agrostis scabra from the Sudbury, Ontario, area ' () 73 Can. J. Bot : 766 -775.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Balzter, H. 2000. Markov chain models for vegetation dynamics. Ecol. Model. 126:139-154.

    'Markov chain models for vegetation dynamics ' () 126 Ecol. Model. : 139 -154.

  • Batabyal, A.A. 1996. On some aspects of the management of a stochastically developing forest. Ecol. Model. 89:67-72.

    'On some aspects of the management of a stochastically developing forest ' () 89 Ecol. Model. : 67 -72.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • McCune, B. 1997. Influence of noisy environmental data on canonical correspondence analysis. Ecology 78:2617-2623.

    'Influence of noisy environmental data on canonical correspondence analysis ' () 78 Ecology : 2617 -2623.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Peden, L.M., J.S. Williams and W.E. Frayer. 1973. A Markov model for stand projection. Forest Science 19:303-314.

    'A Markov model for stand projection ' () 19 Forest Science : 303 -314.

  • Picard, N. and F. Alain, F. 2001. Aggregation of an individual-based space-dependent model of forest dynamics in distribution-based and space-dependent models. Ecol.Model. 145:69-84.

    'Aggregation of an individual-based space-dependent model of forest dynamics in distribution-based and space-dependent models ' () 145 Ecol. Model. : 69 -84.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Pillar, V. de Patta., 1999a The bootstrapped ordination re-examined. J. Veg Sci. 10:895-902.

    'The bootstrapped ordination re-examined ' () 10 J. Veg Sci. : 895 -902.

  • Pillar, V. de Patta., 1999b. FitMarko software program for transition matrix estimation and randomization testing.

  • Podani, J. 2000. Introduction to the Exploration of Multivariate Biological Data. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.

    Introduction to the Exploration of Multivariate Biological Data , ().

  • Podani, J. 2001. SYN-TAX 2000 Computer Program For Data Analysis in Ecology and Systematics: User's Manual. Scientia Publishing, Budapest, Hungary. (User's Guide and Software).

    SYN-TAX 2000 Computer Program For Data Analysis in Ecology and Systematics: User's Manual , ().

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Salemaa, M., I. Vanha-Majamaa and J. Derome. 2001. Understory vegetation along a heavy-metal pollution gradient in SW Finland. Environmental Pollution 112:339-350.

    'Understory vegetation along a heavy-metal pollution gradient in SW Finland ' () 112 Environmental Pollution : 339 -350.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ter Braak, C.J.F. and I.C. Prentice. 1988. A theory of gradient analysis. Adv. Ecol. Res. 18:271-317.

    'A theory of gradient analysis ' () 18 Adv. Ecol. Res. : 271 -317.

  • Usher, B.M. 1979. Markovian approaches to ecological succession. J. Animal Ecol. 48:413-426.

    'Markovian approaches to ecological succession ' () 48 J. Animal Ecol. : 413 -426.

  • Usher, M.B. 1981. Modelling ecological succession, with particular reference to Markovian models. Vegetatio 46:11-18.

    'Modelling ecological succession, with particular reference to Markovian models ' () 46 Vegetatio : 11 -18.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Valverde, T. and J. Silvertown. 1997. Canopy closure rate and forest structure. Ecology 78:1555-1562.

    'Canopy closure rate and forest structure ' () 78 Ecology : 1555 -1562.

  • Winterhalder, K. 2000. Reclamation of smelter-damaged lands. In: Reclamation of Drastically Disturbed Lands. Agronomy Monograph no. 41. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, pp. 819-853.

    Reclamation of smelter-damaged lands , () 819 -853.

  • Wootton, J.T. 2001. Prediction in complex communities: analysis of empirically derived Markov models. Ecology 82:580-598.

    'Prediction in complex communities: analysis of empirically derived Markov models ' () 82 Ecology : 580 -598.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yemshanov, D. and A.H. Perera. 2002. A spatially explicit stochastic model to simulate boreal forest cover transitions: general structure and properties. Ecol. Model. 150:189-209.

    'A spatially explicit stochastic model to simulate boreal forest cover transitions: general structure and properties ' () 150 Ecol. Model. : 189 -209.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yoon, J.M. and A. Korvin. 2001. Evaluating a model of forest succession using fuzzy analysis. Stochastic Analysis and Applications 19:893-901.

    'Evaluating a model of forest succession using fuzzy analysis ' () 19 Stochastic Analysis and Applications : 893 -901.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Amiro, B.D. and G.M Courtin. 1981. Patterns of vegetation in the vicinity of an industrially disturbed ecosystem, Sudbury, Ontario. Can. J. Bot. 59:1623-1639.

    'Patterns of vegetation in the vicinity of an industrially disturbed ecosystem, Sudbury, Ontario ' () 59 Can. J. Bot. : 1623 -1639.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anand, M. and G.W. Heil. 2000. Analysis of a recovery process: Dwingelose Heide revisited. Community Ecol. 1: 65-72.

    'Analysis of a recovery process: Dwingelose Heide revisited ' () 1 Community Ecol. : 65 -72.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Anand, M. and R. Kadmon. 2000. Community-level analysis of spatiotemporal plant dynamics. Écoscience 7: 101-110.

    'Community-level analysis of spatiotemporal plant dynamics ' () 7 Écoscience : 101 -110.

  • Anand, M. and L. Orlóci. 1997. Chaotic dynamics in a multispecies community. Environmental and Ecological Statistics 4: 337-344.

    'Chaotic dynamics in a multispecies community ' () 4 Environmental and Ecological Statistics : 337 -344.

    • Search Google Scholar