View More View Less
  • 1 Oklahoma State University Department of Botany 104 Life Sciences East Stillwater OK 74078 USA
  • | 2 USDA-APHIS 1700 NW 66th Ave, Suite 112 Plantation FL 33313 USA
Restricted access

We established transects under twenty Juniperus virginiana trees that invaded an unburned central Oklahoma grassland within the last 20 years to determine their effects on plant species composition. Species richness and stem density increased as distance from the trunk increased. Stem density was also higher towards the south side of trees. Graminoid, forb and total cover were related to distance from the trunk and transect direction. Ordination revealed weak compositional gradients related to “openness” and compass direction. Woody species tended to be most abundant underneath J. virginiana canopies whereas grass and forb species were most abundant in the prairie. Woody and shade-tolerant species preferentially occurred in north transects and quadrats underneath the tree. Conversely, forbs had highest abundance on edge quadrats whereas graminoids dominated south transects and prairie quadrats. Thus, invasion of grasslands by J. virginiana influences species composition in a spatially complex manner.

  • Axmann, B.D. and A.K. Knapp. 1993. Water relations of Juniperus virginiana and Andropogon gerardii in an unburned tallgrass prairie. Southwestern Naturalist 38:325–330.

    Knapp A.K. , 'Water relations of Juniperus virginiana and Andropogon gerardii in an unburned tallgrass prairie ' (1993 ) 38 Southwestern Naturalist : 325 -330.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Bragg, T.B. and L.C. Hulbert. 1976. Woody plant invasion of unburned Kansas bluestem prairie. J. Range Manage. 29:19–23.

    Hulbert L.C. , 'Woody plant invasion of unburned Kansas bluestem prairie ' (1976 ) 29 J. Range Manage. : 19 -23.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Briggs, J.M., G.A. Hoch and L.C. Johnson. 2002a. Assessing the rate, mechanisms, and consequences of the conversion of tallgrass prairie to Juniperus virginiana forest. Ecosystems 5:578–586.

    Johnson L.C. , 'Assessing the rate, mechanisms, and consequences of the conversion of tallgrass prairie to Juniperus virginiana forest ' (2002 ) 5 Ecosystems : 578 -586.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Briggs, J.M., A.K. Knapp and B.L. Brock. 2002b. Expansion of woody plants in tallgrass prairie: A fifteen-year study of fire and fire-grazing interactions. Am. Midland Nat. 47:287–294.

    Brock B.L. , 'Expansion of woody plants in tallgrass prairie: A fifteen-year study of fire and fire-grazing interactions ' (2002 ) 47 Am. Midland Nat. : 287 -294.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Coppedge, B.R., D.M. Engle, S.D. Fuhlendorf, R.E. Masters and M.S. Gregory. 2001. Landscape cover type and pattern dynamics in fragmented southern Great Plains grasslands, USA. Landscape Ecol. 16:677–690.

    Gregory M.S. , 'Landscape cover type and pattern dynamics in fragmented southern Great Plains grasslands, USA ' (2001 ) 16 Landscape Ecol. : 677 -690.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Engle, D.M., J.F. Stritzke and P.L. Claypool. 1987. Herbage standing crop around eastern redcedar trees. J. Range Manage. 40:237–239.

    Claypool P.L. , 'Herbage standing crop around eastern redcedar trees ' (1987 ) 40 J. Range Manage. : 237 -239.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Facelli, J.M. and S.T.A. Pickett. 1991a. Plant litter: Light interception and effects on an old-field plant community. Ecology 72:1024–1031.

    Pickett S.T.A. , 'Plant litter: Light interception and effects on an old-field plant community ' (1991 ) 72 Ecology : 1024 -1031.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Facelli, J.M. and S.T.A. Pickett. 1991b. Plant litter: Its dynamics and effects on plant community structure. Bot. Rev. 57:1–32.

    Pickett S.T.A. , 'Plant litter: Its dynamics and effects on plant community structure ' (1991 ) 57 Bot. Rev. : 1 -32.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Facelli, J.M. 1994. Multiple indirect effects of plant litter affect the establishment of woody seedlings in old fields. Ecology 75:1727–1735.

    Facelli J.M. , 'Multiple indirect effects of plant litter affect the establishment of woody seedlings in old fields ' (1994 ) 75 Ecology : 1727 -1735.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fuhlendorf, S.D. 1992. Influence of age/size and grazing history on understory relationships of Ashe juniper. MSc Thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

    Fuhlendorf S.D. , '', in Influence of age/size and grazing history on understory relationships of Ashe juniper , (1992 ) -.

  • Gehring, J.L. and T.B. Bragg. 1992. Changes in prairie vegetation under eastern redcedar ( Juniperus virginiana L.) in an eastern Nebraska bluestem prairie. Am. Midland Nat. 128:209–217.

    Bragg T.B. , 'Changes in prairie vegetation under eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) in an eastern Nebraska bluestem prairie ' (1992 ) 128 Am. Midland Nat. : 209 -217.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hallgren, E., M.W. Palmer and P. Milberg. 1999. Data diving with cross-validation: an investigation of broad-scale gradients in Swedish weed communities. J. Ecol. 87:1–16.

    Milberg P. , 'Data diving with cross-validation: an investigation of broad-scale gradients in Swedish weed communities ' (1999 ) 87 J. Ecol. : 1 -16.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hulbert, L.C. 1969. Fire and litter effects in undisturbed bluestem prairie in Kansas. Ecology 50:874–877.

    Hulbert L.C. , 'Fire and litter effects in undisturbed bluestem prairie in Kansas ' (1969 ) 50 Ecology : 874 -877.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Jameson, D.A. 1966. Pinyon-Juniper litter reduces growth of blue grama. J. Range Manage. 19:214–217.

    Jameson D.A. , 'Pinyon-Juniper litter reduces growth of blue grama ' (1966 ) 19 J. Range Manage. : 214 -217.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Joy, D.A. and D.R. Young. 2002. Promotion of mid-successional seedling recruitment and establishment by Juniperus virginiana in a coastal environment. Plant Ecol. 160:125–135.

    Young D.R. , 'Promotion of mid-successional seedling recruitment and establishment by Juniperus virginiana in a coastal environment ' (2002 ) 160 Plant Ecol. : 125 -135.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Knapp, A.K. and T.R. Seastedt. 1986. Detritus accumulation limits productivity of tallgrass prairie. BioScience 36:662–667.

    Seastedt T.R. , 'Detritus accumulation limits productivity of tallgrass prairie ' (1986 ) 36 BioScience : 662 -667.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Legendre, P. and L. Legendre. 1998. Numerical Ecology . Elsevier, Amsterdam.

    Legendre L. , '', in Numerical Ecology , (1998 ) -.

  • Licht, D.S. 1997. Ecology and Economics of the Great Plains . University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska

    Licht D.S. , '', in Ecology and Economics of the Great Plains , (1997 ) -.

  • Linneman, J.S. 2004. Studies of eastern redcedar ecology in central Oklahoma. MSc Thesis, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma.

    Linneman J.S. , '', in Studies of eastern redcedar ecology in central Oklahoma , (2004 ) -.

  • Myster, R.W. 1994. Contrasting litter effects on old field tree germination and emergence. Vegetatio 114:169–174.

    Myster R.W. , 'Contrasting litter effects on old field tree germination and emergence ' (1994 ) 114 Vegetatio : 169 -174.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Oksanen, J. 1996. Is the humped relationship between species richness and biomass an artifact due to plot size? J. Ecol. 84:293–295.

    Oksanen J. , 'Is the humped relationship between species richness and biomass an artifact due to plot size? ' (1996 ) 84 J. Ecol. : 293 -295.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Palmer, M.W., D.B. Clark and D.A. Clark. 2000. Is the number of tree species in small tropical forest plots nonrandom? Community Ecol. 1:95–101.

    Clark D.A. , 'Is the number of tree species in small tropical forest plots nonrandom? ' (2000 ) 1 Community Ecol. : 95 -101.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Samson, F. and F. Knopf. 1994. Prairie conservation in North America. BioScience 44:418–421.

    Knopf F. , 'Prairie conservation in North America ' (1994 ) 44 BioScience : 418 -421.

  • Smith, D.D. 1998. Iowa prairie: Original extent and loss, preservation and recovery attempts. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science 105:94–108.

    Smith D.D. , 'Iowa prairie: Original extent and loss, preservation and recovery attempts ' (1998 ) 105 Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science : 94 -108.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Smith, S.D. and J. Stubbendieck. 1990. Production of tallgrass prairie herbs below eastern redcedar. Prairie Naturalist 22:13–18.

    Stubbendieck J. , 'Production of tallgrass prairie herbs below eastern redcedar ' (1990 ) 22 Prairie Naturalist : 13 -18.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • ter Braak, C.J.F. and P. Šmilauer. 2002. Canoco for Windows 4.5 . Biometris-Plant Research International. Wageningen, Netherlands.

    Šmilauer P. , '', in Canoco for Windows 4.5 , (2002 ) -.

  • USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 ( http://plants.usda.gov ). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA

    '', in The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 , (2004 ) -.

  • Weaver, J.E. and N.W. Rowland. 1952. Effect of excessive natural mulch on the development, yield, and structure of a native grassland. Bot. Gaz. 114:1–19.

    Rowland N.W. , 'Effect of excessive natural mulch on the development, yield, and structure of a native grassland ' (1952 ) 114 Bot. Gaz. : 1 -19.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yager, L.Y. and F.E. Smeins. 1999. Ashe juniper ( Juniperus ashei: Cupressaceae) canopy and litter effects on understory vegetation in a juniper-oak savanna. Southwestern Naturalist 44:6–16.

    Smeins F.E. , 'Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei: Cupressaceae) canopy and litter effects on understory vegetation in a juniper-oak savanna ' (1999 ) 44 Southwestern Naturalist : 6 -16.

    • Search Google Scholar