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Abstract

Although Spiritualism grew out of religious traditions, it was neither a traditional faith community nor a typical reform movement. Spiritualism presented itself as ‘vanguard' that is a progressive, even radical movement, and was highly aware of its public image in the media. It hatched its own theoretical system, adopted issues of social relevance and created its own lines of tradition. It not only used experimental arrangements and recording techniques in order to pursue for immaterial qualities or sensations, but showed unparalleled signs of visualizing itself as a movement. It was driven by a strong proselytizing impetus and, eventually, tended to institutionalize itself. Considering all these aspects, it is safe to say that Spiritualism was the early ism movement par excellence.

  • 1. Please note that toponyms from the map discussed below, are printed in italics. I thank Jane Van Nimmen, Vienna, for putting the finishing touches to the English translation.

  • 2. Broadside, Chicago/Ill. 1866/67 – Worcester/Mass., AAS.

  • 3. Ists and Isms, in: The Yale Literary Magazine (New Haven/Conn.), 13 (1847/48), pp. 7378.

  • 4. Ists and Isms (1847/48), pp. 7378.

  • 5. Nicholas Rusticus , Pride, or, A Touch at the Times. A Satirical Poem, Addressed to all Genuine Reformers in this Glorious Age of Anti-Ism, Boston/Mass. 1830; The Trades’ Union. Address to the Working Men of New York. With the Candid Reply of the Courier and Esquire to the Journal of Commerce, relative to the ‘turn-out’ of the Joureymen Tailors, Carpenters, Printers etc, with some Hints respecting Macdonal-ism, Magdalen-ism, Tappan-ism, and Hale-ism … (from the ‘Scribes of Gotham’!!), New York 1833; James Porter, Modern Infidelity, alias Come-Out-Ism, as Connected with Non-Resistance, Transcendentalism, the Old Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Antinomian Perfection, etc., Shewing by Numerous Facts that it is Infidelity, and Defending the Bible, Sabbath, Ministry, Church, etc. Against its Aspirations (Three Lectures Delivered in the First Methodist Church in Lynn, Mass., Dec. 1843), Boston/Mass. 1844; Sigmabetaphilus, The Scrip, or, Smooth Stones out of the Brook for the Forehead of Ism, the Modern Goliath, and his Sons, Sch-ism, Roman-ism, Liberal-ism, Auto-ism, Despot-ism, Nepot-ism, and Euphem-ism, London 1847; Edward Smith, Address on Come-Out-Ism, New York 1849; R. Examiner, Thoughts for the People of Virginia, in the Present Conflict between the Ancient Principles of Virginia Republican Politics, and the New Ism and Secret System of Tactics which Northern Know Nothings and Abolitionists are Foisting upon them by Means of Secret Clubs and Midnight Councils, Richmond 1855; David Henry Hamilton, What Shall we Believe! A Poem of Everybody, or Rough Shod Rhymes, Suggested by the Study of Nature and Man, and Designed as a Looking Glass for Creeds; in which they may see their Deformity, and the Evil Effects of so Many Bible-isms upon the Morals of Mankind, Lewiston 1858; John Henry Gordon, Just-What-You-Like-Ism. A Brief Explanation of Mr. S. J. Holyoake's ‘Principles of Secularism Briefly Explained', Leeds 1863.

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  • 6. Ann Braude , News from the Spirit World. A Checklist of American Spiritualist Periodicals, 1847–1900, in: Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society (Worcester/Mass.), 1989, oct., pp. 399462, esp. p. 441.

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  • 7. As for the term avant-garde and the ism-arts of the 20th century cf. the standard work by Astrit Schmidt-Burkhardt, Stammbäume der Kunst. Zur Genealogie der Avantgarde, Berlin 2005.

  • 8. Modeled after the neologisms ‘parapsychology’ and ‘paraphysics’, the notion ‘parascience’ appeared on American universities only in the seventies of the 20th century. Herbert Molderings was among the first to apply the term ‘Parawissenschaft’ to modern art in 1983.

  • 9. Howard Kerr , Mediums and Spirit Rappers and Roaring Radicals. Spiritualism in American Literature, 1850–1900, Urbana 1972; Burton Gates Brown, Spiritualism in Nineteenth-Century America, Theses, Boston/Mass. 1973; Mary Farrell Bednarowski, Nineteenth-Century American Spiritualism. An Attempt at Scientific Religion, Theses, Minnesota/Minn. 1973; R. Laurence Moore, In Search of White Crows, Spiritualism, Parapsychology, and American Culture, New York 1977.

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  • 10. As for the practice of spirit conjuring in early methodism cf. Bernd W. Krysmanski, Hogarth's ‘Enthusiasm Delineated'. Nachahmung als Kritik am Kunstkennertum. Eine Werkausgabe; zugleich ein Einblick in das sarkastisch-aufgeklärte Denken eines ‘Künstlerrebellen’ im englischen 18. Jahrhundert, Hildesheim 1996, pp. 93104; id., We see a Ghost. Hogarth's Satire on Methodists and Connoisseurs, in: The Art Bulletin (New York), 80, 1998, 2, pp. 292–310.

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  • 11. Herbert G. Jackson , Spirit Rappers, Garden City/N.Y. 1972; Robert C. Fuller, Mesmerism and the American Cure of Soul, Philadelphia/Penn. 1982; Cults and New Religions, ed. by John Gordon Melton, Vol. 2, Spiritualism II, ed. by Gary L. Ward, New York 1990, pp. 2225.

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  • 12. James Parton , The Life of Horace Greeley. Editor of ‘The New York Tribune’, New York 1855, p. 375ff.: ‘The Isms of the Tribune’; Maria Cooper, Horace Greeley als publizistische Persönlichkeit. Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des amerikanischen Journalismus (1830–1870), theses, Berlin 1966; Lurton Dunham Ingersoll, The Life of Horace Greeley, Founder of the New York Tribune, Chicago/Ill. 1979; Coy F. Cross, Go West, Young Man! Horace Greeley's Vision for America, Albuquerque/N.M. 1995.

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  • 13. William Richard Leopold , Robert Dale Owen. A Biography, Cambridge/Mass. 1940 (New York2 1969).

  • 14. Andrew Jackson Davis , The Magic Staff. An Autobiography, New York 1857 (reprinted, Mokelumna Hill/Ca. 1972).

  • 15. Bruce Mills , Poe, Fuller, and the Mesmeric Arts. Transition States in the American Renaissance, Columbia/Mo. 2005.

  • 16. Thomas G. Newman's ‘Religio-Philosophical Journal’ (founded 1865), Frank L. Wadsworth's and J. S. Loveland 's ‘Spiritual Republic’ (founded 1867), Colonel Dorus M. Fox’ ‘Present Age’ (founded 1868), Mrs. A. Buffum's ‘News from the Spirit World' (founded 1868), the ‘Spiritual Record' (founded 1879) and the ‘Universe’ (founded 1868 by a certain H. N. F. Lewis) were only a few spiritualistic periodicals sprouting in Chicago, cf. Braude (1989), pp. 399–462. Publications like George A. Shufeldt, History of the Chicago Artesian Well. A Demonstration of the Truth of the Spiritual Philosophy, Chicago/Ill. 1866, and William B. Fahnestock, Statuvolism, or, Artificial Somnambulism, hitherto called Mesmerism, or Animal Magnetism, Chicago/Ill. 1871; give further evidence of the vividness of the spiritualistic scene there; see also Alfred Theodore Andreas, History of Chicago, from the Earliest Period to the Present Time, Vol. 1, Chicago/Ill. 1884 (reprinted New York 1975), p. 353f.

  • 17. In April 1862, a certain Thomas J. Lewis from Galesburg, Illinois, signed up as a volunteer for the Second Light Artillery, Battery H. 1865, he left the army as a sergeant. In a letter of 22 Dec. 1866, the renowned spiritualist John Worth Edmonds noted in Boston: ‘I received from Dr. Thomas J. Lewis of Chicago, a letter, giving me the results of a circle held in that city’, John Worth Edmonds, Letters and Tracts on Spiritualism, London 1875, p. 29.

  • 18. As for an iconography of the early spiritualism, cf. Lyceum Banner, ed. by Lou H. Kimball, Chicago/Ill. 1867–1872; [Prof.] M. Milleson [care ‘Banner of Light’, Boston], Philosophy of Spirit Likenesses. How to Obtain a Spirit Likeness from M. Milleson, Artist for the Summer Land, New York 1869; Andrew Jackson Davis, The Fountain, with Jets of New Meanings. Illustrated with One Hundred and Fourty-Two Engravings, Boston/Mass. 1870; Emma Hardinge, Spirit-Art and The Spirit-Drawings of Mr. C. Laurie, in: The Year-Book of Spiritualism for 1871, Boston/Mass. 1871; Little Bouquet, ed. by S. S. Jones, Chicago/Ill. 1872–1876; Art Magic, or, Mundane, Sub-Mundane and Super-Mundane Spiritism, ed. by Emma Hardinge, New York 1876; Gallery of Spirit Art. An Illustrated Magazine devoted to and Illustrative of Spirit Photography, Spirit Painting, the Photographing of Materialized Forms and Every Form of Spirit Art, ed. by Charles R. Miller, Brooklyn/N.Y. 1882–1883; American Manners & Morals. A Picture History of How We Behaved and Misbehaved, ed. by Mary Cable, New York 1969, p. 192f.

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  • 19. 18th and 19th century maps show a proper federal state named after Benjamin Franklin which has never existed in this form, cf. Ashley Baynton-Williams, Maps marking the American State of Franklin, in: The Map Collector (Tring/ England), 72, 1995, 3, pp, 1217.

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  • 20. Johannes Bolte , Die Altweibermühle. Ein Tiroler Volksschauspiel, in: Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen (Braunschweig), 102, 1899, pp. 241266; Hans Wettich, Die Maschine in der Karikatur. Ein Buch zum Siege der Technik, Berlin, 1916 (21920), pp. 30–40; William A. Coupe, The German Illustrated Broadsheet in the Seventeenth Century. Historical and Iconological Studies, Vol. 1, Baden-Baden 1966, pp. 158–160; Leopold Kretzenbacher, Voraussetzungen und Erscheinungsformen von Bild- und Wortzeugnissen zum mystischen Thema der ‘Geistlichen Mühle’, in: Bayerisches Jahrbuch für Volkskunde (Würzburg), 1983, pp. 55–85; Paul Huys, Molen en molenaar te kijk gesteld, Gent 1996; Feinmotorik Kompendium. Lexikon zu Feinmotorik in Kunst, Wissenschaft und Alltag, ed. by Marc Matter, Berlin 2005.

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  • 21. Jean Paul Richter , Flegeljahre. Eine Biographie, Vol. 2, Tübingen 1804, no. 18: ‘Echinit’. According to our knowledge, ‘Flegeljahre’ is not among Jean Paul's works translated into English.

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  • 22. John Greenleaf Whittier, On a Prayer Book, in: The Independent (New York), 1859, 11. Sept. From early on, the verse was considered to be a key passage in the poet's work, cf. Home Ballads, The Harvard Magazine (Cambridge/Mass.), 1861, Dec., pp. 149155, esp. p. 154.

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  • 23. Davis (1870), p. 31f.

  • 24. Davis (1870), p. 74.

  • 25. Andrew Jackson Davis , Death and the After-Life. Eight Evening Lectures on the Summer-Land, Boston/Mass. 1865, Rochester/N.Y. 1911, p. 10.

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  • 26. Creed Crusher , or, the Great Globe of Spiritual Truth, lithography, 59 × 46 cm, Chicago Lithographing Co. (impr.); Thomas J[efferson]. Lewis, Scientific Explanation of the Creed Crusher, or Spiritual Mill, for Pulverizing Creeds, Chicago/Ill. 1867, brochure. – Cambridge/Mass., Harvard HL; Washington/D.C., LoC, cf. Post (1973), p. 50f.

  • 27. Spirit World, ed. by LaRoy Sunderland, Boston/Mass. 1851; Reverend C. Hammond, Light from the Spirit World. The Pilgrimage of Thomas Paine and Others to the Seventh Circle in the Spirit World, Rochester/N.Y. 1852; Light from the Spirit World, ed. by P. Bland, St. Louis/Mo. 1852–53; News from the Spirit World, ed. by A. Buffum, Chicago/Ill. 1868–1870. Nathan Francis White, Voices from Spirit Land, New York 1854; Samuel Bulfinch Emmons, The Spirit Land, Boston, Chicago/Ill. 1857; Spirit Land, ed. by Wallace A. Brice, New Orleans/Lou. 1860; Samuel H. Lloyd, Glimpses of the Spirit-Land, n. p. 1867.

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  • 28. Robert Dale Owen , Footfalls on the Boundary of another World, Philadelphia/Penn. 1859; id., The Debatable Land Between this World and the Next, New York, London 1872.

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  • 29. Child of the Sun, The Summer-Land. A Southern Story, New York 1855; Andrew Jackson Davis and Robert S. Moore, Death and the After-Life. Eight Evening Lectures on the Summer-Land, Boston/Mass. 1865; Andrew Jackson Davis, A Stellar Key to the Summer Land, Boston/Mass. 1867, pp. 131147: ‘The Location of the Summer-Land'; Andrew Jackson Davis, The Harmonial Philosophy, Chicago/Ill. n. y., chap. 7: Constitution and Location of the Summer Land', see also Aaron Stevens Hayward, Nature's Laws in Human Life. An Exposition in Spiritualism, Boston/Mass. 1872, p. 153157: ‘Spiritualism at the Methodist Camp Meetings’; William D. Moore, ‘To Hold Communion with Nature and the Spirit-World'. New-England's Spiritualist Camp Meetings, 1865–1910, in: Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture (Annapolis/Md.), 7, 1997, pp, 230248.

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  • 30. Andrew Jackson Davis , The Magic Staff. An Autobiography, New York 1857, p. 125.

  • 31. Branch (1934), p. 330.

  • 32. As for the formation of alternative movements in America, cf. James C. Whorton, Nature Cures. The History of Alternative Medicine in America, Oxford, New York 2002; Al Gabay, Covert Enlightenment. Eighteenth-Century Counterculture and its Aftermath, West Chester/Penn. 2005.

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  • 33. The abstract term found an equivalent in real places like Wisdom/Kentucky, Wisdom/Montana and Wisdom/Missouri, cf. Stewart (1970), p. 539; Ruth Rudner, Greetings from Wisdom, Montana, Golden/Col. 1989; Herzog (1999), p. 347372.

  • 34. Cf. George Bush, Mesmer and Swedenborg or, The Relation of the Developments of Mesmerism to the Doctrines and Disclosures of Swedenborg, New York 1847; Robert C. Fuller, Mesmerism and the American Cure of Souls, Philadelphia/Penn. 1982.

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  • 35. Josiah Warren , Equitable Commerce. A New Development of Principles, for the Harmonious Adjustment and Regulation of the Pecuniary, Intellectual and Moral Intercourse of Mankind, New Harmony/Ind. 1846; see also William Bailie, Josiah Warren. The First American Anarchist. A Sociological Study, Boston/Mass. 1906 (reprint New York 1972); James J. Martin, Man Against the State. The Expositions of Individualist Anarchism in America, 1827–1908, New York 1957, chap. 1–3.

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  • 36. Adin Ballou , An Exposition of Views Respecting the Principle Facts, Causes & Peculiarities Involved in Spirit Manifestation, Boston/Mass. 1852 (reprinted, London 2000); see also Philip S. Padelford, Adin Ballou and the Hopedale Community, New Haven/Conn. 1942; Autobiography of Adin Ballou 1803–1890, Containing an Elaborate Record and Narrative of his Life from Infancy to Old Age, ed. by William S. Heywood, Philadelphia/Penn. 1975.

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  • 37. John Edgar , Jamie, or, A Voice from Ireland for Temperance. A True Narrative, New York about 1830; William Dool Killen, Memoir of John Edgar, D. D., Professor of Systematic Theology for the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, Belfast 1869, chap. 13.

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  • 38. John Samuel Duss , The Harmonists. A Personal History, Harrisburg 1943 (reprinted, Philadelphia/Penn. 1972); Karl John Richard Arndt, George Rapp's Harmony Society 1785–1847, Rutherford/N.J. 1972; Rainer Vollmar, Wohnen in der Wildnis. Siedlungsgestaltung und Identität deutscher Auswanderer in den USA, Berlin 1995, p. 8398.

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  • 39. Drucilla Milne , The Amish of Harmony, Harmony/Minn. 1993; Millicent Yates Johnson, Let's have Harmony. A Centennial History, Harmony/Minn. 1996; Brad Herzog, Harmony, California, in: id. (1999), pp. 1129.

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  • 40. Braude (1989), p. 440.

  • 41. Andrew Jackson Davis , The Great Harmonia, being a Philosophical Relevation of the Natural, Spiritual and Celestial Universe, Boston/Mass. 1851/52; id. The Harmonial Man, or, Thoughts for the Age, Boston/Mass. 1853.

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  • 42. Braude (1989), p. 434.

  • 43. Charles Hammond , Light from the Spirit World. The Pilgrimage of Thomas Paine and Others to the Seventh Circle in the Spirit World, Rochester/N.Y. 1852.

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  • 44. Early Writings of Ellen G. White, ed. by Uriah Smith, Battle Creek/Mich. 1882, p. 88ff.; Uriah Smith, Modern Spiritualism. A Subject of Prophecy and a Sign of the Times, Battle Creek/Mich. 1897, chap. 5: ‘What the Spirits Teach’.

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  • 45. George Combe , Elements of Phrenology, Boston/Mass. 1835; Johann Caspar Spurzheim, Phrenology, or, the Doctrine of the Mental Phenomena, Boston/Mass. 1838; John Pierpont, Phrenology and the Scriptures, New York 1850; see also John Dunn Davis, Phrenology. Fad and Science. A 19th Century American Crusade, Hamden/Conn. 1955 (reprinted Hamden/Conn. 1971).

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  • 46. John Pierpont , Phrenology and the Scriptures, New York 1850.

  • 47. Edmonds (1875), p. 29.

  • 48. Lydia Maria Francis Child, Isaac T. Hopper. A True Life, Boston/Mass. 1853 (reprinted, New York 1969); Margaret Hope Bacon, Lamb's Warrior. The Life of Isaac T. Hopper, New York 1970; Kidnappers in Philadelphia. Isaac Hopper's Tales of Oppression, 1780–1843, ed. by Daniel E. Meaders, New York 1994.

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  • 49. Emma Hardinge , The Great Funeral Oration on Abraham Lincoln … at the Cooper Institute, New York 1865; id., Rules to be Observed for the Spirit Circle, London 1867; id., The Modern American Spiritualism, New York 1870.

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  • 50. Elizabeth Doten , The Lily of the Valley, for 1854, Boston/Mass. 1853; id., Hesper. The Home Spirit. A Simple Story of Household Labor and Love, Boston/Mass. 1858; id., Poems from the Inner Life, Boston/Mass. 1863; id., Free Love and Affinity. A Discourse Delivered Under Spirit Influence at the Melodeon, Boston, Sunday Evening, March 20, 1859, Boston/Mass. 1867; id., Poems of Progress, Boston/Mass. 1871.

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  • 51. Geneva Handy Southall , Blind Tom. The Post-Civil War Enslavement of a Black Musical Genius, Minneapolis/Minn. 1979–99; Ricky Jay, Sauschlau & Feuerfest. Menschen, Tiere, Sensationen des Showbusiness, Offenbach/Main 1988, pp. 8795. Blind Tom was not the only musical medium in his times, cf. ‘Prof. Milleson will speak here on March 23rd, and James R. Cocke, the blind musical medium, the 30th’, Henry Aaron Budington, in: The Banner of Light (Boston/Mass.), 15 March 1884.

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  • 52. The literary career of the blue flower can be traced back to a song by Walter Turnbull and John Ashton, I have Flown from the Cup of the Blue Hare-Bell. The Fairy's Song, Boston/Mass. 1824–33. An almanac published between 1843 and 1852 in Hartford/Connecticut by Charles William Everest (1814–1877) was entitled ‘Hare-Bell. A Token of Friendship’.

  • 53. William Ellery Channing , Emancipation, Boston/Mass. 1840; see also Robert Dale Owen, Emancipation is Peace, New York 1863.

  • 54. Moses Hull , A Discourse on the Death of President Lincoln, Battle Creek/Mich., 1865; Nettie Colburn Maynard, Was Abraham Lincoln a Spiritualist? or, Curious Revelations from the Life of a Trance Medium, Philadelphia/Penn. 1891; Elliott V. Fleckles, Willie Speaks Out! The Psychic World of Abraham Lincoln, St. Paul/Minn. 1974. As for the usage of ‘Lincoln’ as a toponym cf. N. C. Abbott, Lincoln. Name and Place, in: Publications. Nebraska State Historical Society (York/Nebr.), 21 (1930), pp. 8133; sowie Lawrence Beaumont Stringer, Abraham Lincoln and the City of Lincoln, Illinois, n. p. 1938.

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  • 55. Edward Samuel Corwin , The ‘Higher Law’. Background of American Constitutional Law, Ithaca/N.Y. 1955; Gregg D. Crane, Race, Citizenship, and Law in American Literature, Cambridge/Mass. 2002, chap. 1 and 2; James Hitchcock, The Supreme Court and Religion in American Life, Vol. 2, From ‘Higher Law’ to ‘Sectarian Scruples’, Princeton/N.J. 2004; Alexander H. Stephens, Slavery, Secession, and the Higher Law, in: Thomas E. Schneider, Lincoln's Defense of Politics. The Public Man and his Opponents in the Crisis over Slavery, Columbia/Miss. 2006, chap. 3.

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  • 56. Testimonies of Capt. John Brown, at Harper's Ferry, with his Address to the Court, New York 1860.

  • 57. Robert Owen Dale , Galileo and the Inquisition, New York 1830; John Elliot Drinkwater Bethune, Life of Galileo Galilei, Boston 1832; Peter Cooper, Galileo – The Roman Inquisition, Cincinnati/Oh. 1844; see also Albrecht Fölsing, Galileo Galilei – Prozeß ohne Ende, Munich 1983.

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  • 58. William Penn , A Brief Account of the Rise and Progress of the People Called Quakers, London 1694.

  • 59. Eight Hundred Thousand Slaves Set Free!! The Anniversary of Emancipation in the British West Indies, will be Celebrated in the City of Worcester, … by a General Mass Meeting of the Friends of Freedom … Among the Speakers, who have Engaged to be Present, are Wendell Phillips, Wm. Lloyd Garrison, Theodore Parker, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Adin Ballou …, Worcester/Mass. 1849.

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  • 60. Perry Miller , The Transcendentalists, Cambridge/Mass. 1966.

  • 61. Mentioned on the map is also Orson S. Murray, who between 1844 and 1846 was the editor of the New York magazine ‘The Regenerator. A Free Paper for the Promotion of Universal Inquiry and Progressive Improvement’.

  • 62. Dexter C. Bloomer , Life and Writings of Amelia Bloomer, Boston/Mass. 1895 (reprinted, St. Clair Shores/Mich. 1976).

  • 63. Cf. Harrisburg/Penn., Penn SL-Alice Kahler Marshall Coll.: Amelia Bloomer and Bloomer Girls Graphics; see also ‘Bloomerism’, or, the New Female Costume of 1851, Boston/Mass. 1851; Bilderlexikon der Erotik, ed. by Ludwig Altmann, Max Bauer and Paul Englisch, Vol. 1, Vienna 1928, p. 149: ‘Bloomerismus’; Charles Neilson Gattey, The Bloomer Girls, New York 1967.

  • 64. For the notion of ‘media’ see also Franz Reitinger, ‘Wenn dieser Bauer aufwacht, hat uns're Freundschaft ein End'. Neuzeitliches Bild und moderne Medien, in: Kleiner Atlas der österreichischen Gemütlichkeit, Klagenfurt 2003, p. 141163.

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  • 65. Ernst Cassirer , Substanzbegriff und Funktionsbegriff. Untersuchungen über die Grundfragen der Erkenntniskritik, Berlin 1910 (reprinted, Darmstadt 1969; engl., New York 1953); Walter Benjamin, Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit, Frankfurt/M. 1966, pp. 744.

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  • 66. The Spiritual in Art. Abstract Painting 1890–1985, Exhibition catalogue, ed. by Maurice Tuchmann, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, New York 1986; Okkultismus und Avantgarde. Von Munch bis Mondrian 1900–1915, Exhibition catalogue, ed. by Veit Loers, Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt/M. Ostfildern 1995. Both publications give the wrong impression that both spiritualism and spiritualist art were an original invention of the 20th century.

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  • 67. Peter C. Marzio , The Democratic Art. Pictures for a 19th-Century America, Boston/Mass. 1979 (London 21980), p. 178f.

  • 68. Report of Laura C. Owen from Indianapolis: ‘Miss Ida Hart under the management of T.J. Lewis, assisted by Charles H. Read, has been given a performance’. Read ‘then introduced me to Mr. T. J. Lewis (who is as true and honorable a man as lives, I believe) as a medium of very wonderful power. He first taught me some tricks with ropes, but Mr. Lewis wanted materialization’, quoted after Edwin Dwight Babbit, An Expose, in: The Religio-Philosophical Journal (Chicago/Ill.), 13. Sept. 1873.

  • 69. Ebenezer V. Wilson , The Truths of Spiritualism. Immortality Proved beyond a Doubt by Living Witnesses, Chicago/Ill. 1876, p. 200.

  • 70. The Spiritual Magazine (London), 3, 1877, p. 185; The Religio-Philosophical Journal (Chicago/Ill.), 15. Mai 1880, Directory (‘Healers’): ‘Dr. T. J. Lewis, 485 Waverly Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y.’.

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