View More View Less
  • 1 Institute of Art History, Zagreb, Croatia, Ul. Grada Vukovara 68
Restricted access

Abstract

Croatia is a country which had throughout the centuries experienced turbulent political life. It is situated at the crossroads of different cultural and artistic influences and, moreover, the point at which the Mediterranean meets Central Europe and closest to the places were East penetrates furthest into the West. As far as the stylistic influences and the reception of style are concerned, the 18th century art in Northern Croatia in most of its aspects corresponds to the features of Central European late Baroque art. This is mostly due to the fact that at that time Croatia was a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, which by its widely extended borders provided a vast frame for the various artists who traveled around, or carried out various commissions of artworks throughout that extensive empire.

  • 1. Long after the defeat of Turks in 1683 the North-West Croatia was under the threat from the Ottoman Empire while Slavonia and its capital Osijek (Essek) stayed until 1687 under the direct rule of Ottoman Empire. Untill the end of the 17th century Osijek was a completely oriental town and its skyline was defined almost exclusively by oriental residential architecture and numerous minarets and mosques. It was the Peace of Srijemski Karlovci in1699 that finally brought to an end the long-lasting distress of the entire area.

  • 2. BariBarokno kiparstvo sjeverne Hrvatske, Barok I prosvjetiteljstvo, Školska knjiga, Zagreb 2003, S. 619635.

  • 3. An important base for the work of the Baroque sculptors was found in the cities, centres of large regions and the seats of the more prosperous clients, which ensured the sculptors orders and a living. Thus we can track in Zagreb, Varaždin and Osijek the constant presence of one or more sculptors who also tended to extend their work into the surrounding area.

  • 4. Bari Peristil 14/15 (1971/72), S. 171184.

  • 5. Vrišer, Sergej: Werke Veit Königers in Slowenien und Croatien, Alte und moderne Kunst, sv. 103, Wien, 1969, 13, 17.

  • 6. Vrišer, Sergej: Djela štajerskih baroČasopis za zgodovino in narodopisje, 3/XXXVIII (Maribor, 1967), S. 144156.

  • 7. Bari Peristil 29 (1986), S. 97117.

  • 8. After the renovation of Zagreb Cathedral carried out by the 19th century architect Herman Bolle after the destructive earthquake, Robba's altars were removed, and today are to be found in the churches of some smaller cities.

  • 9. Blasius Grueber worked in Baroque-period Varaždin from 1727, when he painted the walls and ceiling of the sacristy of Varaždin Cathedral, at one time the Jesuit St Mary's Church, with the scenes representing the Jesuits’ most prominent saints and the Assumption and Coronation of the Virgin Mary. In the last few years quite a lot of his works have been discovered scattered around the churches of small towns in NW Croatia, among which we would refer particularly to paintings in Trgoviš Stigmatisation of St Francis of Assisi, painted after Baroni's interpretation of Balestra's work, the painting of St Anne Teaching Mary, the Stoning of St Stephen, the Death of St Rosalie and the Mary Magdalene inspired by the work of Titian. His paintings are characterised by their light colouring, the decorative treatment of the clothing and the characteristic naive facial traits of the saints.

  • 10. Isaiah Gasser was born in Brixen in Tyrol and belonged to a well-known family of painters. Being a lay brother, his work is mostly connected with the Franciscan monasteries in Varaždin and Kloštar IvaniDuns Scotus, allegorical depictions of the four seasons, Fons Vitae, a double Portrait of Franciscan theologians, up to the altarpieces that he did for altars by Joseph Weinacht in Kloštar IvaniFourteen Holy Helpers, Madonna of the Rosary or St Rosalie and St Joseph, to mention just a few, are an uncommon mingling of Rococo and Late Baroque Classicism.

  • 11. Repani Barokno slikarstvo u Hrvatskoj franjevačkoj provinciji sv. Ćirila i Metoda, Zagreb, 2004., S. 95155.

  • 12. Mirkovi Kultura pavlina, Arts and Crafts Museum, Zagreb, 1989, S. 127163.

  • 13. Of particular interest is the iconography of Ranger's paintings, which lately has been analyzed in the articles of Sanja CvetniRadovi instituta za povijest umjetnosti 29 (2005), S. 187–200; CvetniRadovi instituta za povijest umjetnosti 30 (2006), S. 141–162. Also see the articles as the pdf at: http://www.hart.hr/pdf/r29/radovi-29-str-187-200-Cvetnic.pdf and http://www.hart.hr/pdf/r30/Radovi-IPU-30-141-162-Cvetnic.pdf.

  • 14. Repani Barokno slikarstvo u Hrvatskoj franjevačkoj provinciji sv. Ćirila i Metoda, Institute of Art History, Zagreb, 2004, S. 72–121; Anica, Cevc: Valentin Metzinger – življenje in delo baročnega slikarja, National Gallery, Ljubljana, 2000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Bergmüller's prints were also the model for the wall paintings representing Seven Gifts of the Holy Sprit (1775–1780) in the pilgrim church of the Holy Kings in Komin. The original Bergmüller etchings are kept in the Graphics Collection of Städelsches Kunstinstitut in Frankfurt. Based on a comparative analysis, the Komin frescoes are attributed to the classicist Zagreb painter Antun Archer who died in 1807 and who for some time worked in Lerchinger's painting workshop. See: RepaniRadovi Instituta za povijest umjetnosti 27 (2003), S. 197–206. See also the article in pdf format at: http://www.hart.hr/pdf/r27/18-Repanic-Braun.pdf.

  • 16. Anica, Cevc: Anton Jožef Lerhinger, National Gallery, Ljubljana 2007; Anica, Cevc: Štirje letni Acta historiae artis Slovenica 7 (2002), S. 93106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Repanić-Braun, Mirjana: Barokno slikarstvo u Hrvatskoj franjevačkoj provinciji sv. Ćirila i Metoda, Institute of Art History, Zagreb, 2004, S. 159181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. The inscription discovered at the lower right part of the painting placed on the attics of the Bishops’ Archive in Pécs.

  • 19. Repani Franz Anton Maulbertsch und Mitteleuropa, Brno 2007, S. 97101.

  • 20. Repani Radovi Instituta za povijest umjetnosti 28 (2004), S. 176187. See also the artticle in pdf format: http://www.hart.hr/pdf/r28/177-187MirjanaRepanic-Braun.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. The compositional structure of the painting skillfully combines the two themes – the Fall of the angel, one of the most commonly interpreted themes after the establishment of the Counter-Reformation activities of the Catholic Church, in the upper part, and a suggestive narration of the battle for the liberation of Osijek from the Turks in the lower part. The author of this composition replaced the traditional apocalyptic scene with the fallen angels lying underneath the feet of the archangel-victor, with a scene of battle. He based the symbolism of the victory of Good over Evil, of Archangel over Lucifer, the Catholic Church over Islam, and the triumph of the Counter-Reformation over Protestantism, on an amalgamation of the symbolic and the historical, a manner that was entirely appropriate for the environment the painting was created for in the first place – a city that was under Turkish siege for 160 years (1526–1687). See: RepaniRadovi Instituta za povijest umjetnosti 26 (2002), S. 98–108. See also the article as pdf at: http://www.hart.hr/pdf/r26/098-108a.pdf.

  • 22. Repani Silazak Duha Svetoga Kremser Schmidta u kapucinskoj crkvi Sv. Jakova u Osijeku, Radovi Instituta za povijest umjetnosti 23 (1999), S. 117120. See the article in pdf form at: http://www.hart.hr/pdf/r23/23-12-Repanic-Braun.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation