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  • 1 France Stele Institute of Art History, Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Novi trg 2, PO Box 306, SI–1001, Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Abstract

The history of the art history in Slovenia, due to its characteristics and specific problems, fits into the Eastern European context. After the international beginnings of the “scientific” art history, resulting from the study of Josip Mantuani (1860–1933) with Franz Wickoff in Vienna, Avguštin Stegenšek (1875–1920) with Joseph Wilpert in Rome and Josef Strzygowsky in Graz, and the three scholars of the “great generation” France Stele (1886–1972), Izidor Cankar (1886–1958) and Vojeslav Mole (1886–1973) with Max Dvořak in Vienna, the art historical discourse and the activities in the period between the wars, and especially after the Second World War, took place mostly in context of the newly established Yugoslavia. An interesting example with regards to the above-mentioned situation and to the national, regional and global context of art historical discourse is the publication of Valvasor's collection of prints (Iconotheca Valvasoriana), which took place from 2002 to 2008 and the historiography of the collection.

  • 1. Born, RobertJanatková, AlenaLabuda, Adam S.: Vorwort der Herausgeber, In Die Kunsthistoriographien in Ostmitteleuropa und der nationale Diskurs (humboldt-schriften zur kunst- und bildgeschichte 1), Berlin 2004, pp. 930.

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  • 2. As a rule, Slovenia does not appear in the literature among the East Central European Countries., cf. e. g. Born–Janatková–Labuda 2004 (see note 1), p. 11.

  • 3. As examples for the discussion see Raziskovalec, 25, 5/6, 1995, especially the article by Rotar, Drago B,: HumanistiZa odprto znanost (For the Open Science) (ed. Luthar, Oto et al.), Ljubljana 2004; Predlog nacionalnega znanstvenoraziskovalnega in razvojnega programa za humanistiko in družboslovje (NZRRPHD) za obdobje 2006–2011 (Model of National Research and Developemnt Programme for Humanities and Social Sciences), Nova revija, 286–286, 2006, pp. 5103.

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  • 4. For the selection of the main contributions in Slovenian: Ložar, Rajko: Slovenska umetnostna zgodovina (Summary: Les historiens slovènes de l'art), Zbornik za umetnostno zgodovino, 14, 1937, pp, 1935; Stele, France: Slovenska umetnostna zgodovina po letu 1920 (Summary: Zbornik za umetnostno zgodovino, n. s. 8, 1970, pp. 2744; Höfler, Janez: Slovenska umetnostna zgodovina nekdaj in danes (Slovenian Art History in the Past and Nowadays), in Slovenska umetnostna zgodovina. Tradicija, problemi, perspektive (Slovenian Art History. Traditions, Problems and Prospects), ed. Murovec, Barbara, Ljubljana 2004; in German: Šijanec, Fran: Der Stand der Barockforschung in Slowenien, Österreichische Zeitschrift für Kunst und Denkmalpflege, 15, 1961, pp. 136143; Stele, France: Slowenische Kunstgeschichte seit 1920, Jahrbuch des Kunsthistorischen Institutes der Universität Graz, 3/4, 1968/69, pp. 118.

  • 5. Brejc, Tomaž: Pro et contra. Osemdesetletnica znamenite knjižice (Pro et contra. Eightieth Anniversary of the famous Booklet), Umetnostna kronika, 10, 2006, pp. 1031: Tomaž Brejc, Terminologija Izidorja Cankarja. Geneza štirih pojmov: umetnina kot organizem, umetnostno hotenje, forma in stil (Izidor Cankar's Terminology. Genesis of Four Notions. Piece of Art as Organism, Kunstwollen, Form and Style), Umetnostna kronika, 20, 2008, pp. 25. On individual art historians see e. g. LavriMantuanijev zbornik. Simpozij ob 60. obletnici smrti (Papers in honour of the 60th Anniversary of Josip Mantuani's Death), ed. Edo Škulj, Ljubljana 1994, pp. 87100; In Honour of Avguštin Stegenšek a symposium took place in 2005. The papers from the symposium were published in Studia Historica Slovenica, 7, 2007, pp. 463960.

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  • 6. Höfler, Janez: Devetnajsto stoletje. Pota nastajanja umetnostne zgodovine na Slovenskem (Summary: Nineteenth Century. The Various Ways the History of Art Development on the Slovene Territory), Studia Historica Slovenica, 7, 2007, p. 468.

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  • 7. O stanju in aktualnih nalogah slovenske umetnostne zgodovine. Gradivo I. simpozija slovenskih umetnostnih zgodovinarjev v Radovljici 1960 (On the State and Missions of Slovenian Art History. Materials of 1st Symposium of Slovenian Art Historians in Radovljica in 1960), Ljubljana 1961 (cyclostyle typescript).

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  • 8. Slovenska umetnostna zgodovina. Tradicija, problemi, perspektive (Slovenian Art History. Traditions, Problems and Prospects) ed. Murovec, Barbara, Ljubljana 2004.

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  • 9. See especially: Geografski položaj gotskega slikarstva v Sloveniji (Geographical Conditions of Gothic Painting in Slovenia), Ephemeridis Instituti archaeologici Bulgarici, 16, 1950, pp. 205212; Die mittelalterliche Wandmalerei in Slowenien im mitteleuropäischen Rahmen, Südost-Forschungen, 16, 1957, pp. 284297. The fundamental work, in which he applied his method of geography of art is: Umetnost na Primorskem (Summary: L'art du littoral Slovéne), Ljubljana 1960.

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  • 10. Cevc, Emilijan: Francè Stelè, In Letopis Slovenske akademije znanosti in umetnosti / The Yearbook of the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts, 23, 1972 [1973], p. 112.

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  • 11. The leading researchers were Anica Cevc, Emilijan Cevc, Jože Curk, Ivan Komelj, Nace Šumi, Sergej Vrišer and Marijan Zadnikar.

  • 12. Stele, France: Kmečka kultura. Sodobna razmišljanja slovenskega človeka o njenih vrednotah (Rural Culture. Slovenian's Current Views of its Values), Ljubljana 1944 (Sodobna vprašanja, 4), p. 4.

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  • 13. Šumi, Nace: Poslovilne besede ob odprtem grobu (Farewell Speech at the Grave), Zbornik za umetnostno zgodovino, 9, 1972, p. 5.

  • 14. Stele, France: Narodnostni moment v zgodovini umetnosti s posebnim ozirom na slovensko umetnostno zgodovino (Aspect of the National in Art History with Emphases on Slovenian Art History), Peristil, 2, 1957, pp. 1928.

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  • 15. Stele 1957 (see note 14), p. 20.

  • 16. Šumi, Nace: Pogledi na slovensko umetnost (Views of Slovenian Art), Ljubljana 1975, p. 5 (Foreword to selected papers).

  • 17. Ibid.

  • 18. Šumi, Nace: Pot in aktualne naloge slovenske umetnostne zgodovine (The Way and the Actual Problems of the History of Slovene Art), in Šumi 1975 (see note 16), p. 26. The essay was first published in: II. seminar slovenskega jezika, literature in kulture. Predavanja (2nd Seminar of Slovenian Language, Literature and Culture. Lectures), Ljubljana 1966 (cyclostyle typescript), with English Summary The Way and the Actual Problems of the History of Slovene Art.

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  • 19. Ibid., p. 25.

  • 20. Brucher, Günter: Die barocke Deckenmalerei in der Steiermark, Jahrbuch des Kunsthistorischen Institutes der Universität Graz, 8, 1973; Lipoglavšek, Marjana: Baročno stropno slikarstvo na Slovenskem (Summary: Baroque Ceiling Painting in Slovenia), Ljubljana 1996. The book Barock (ed. Hellmut Lorenz), München–London–New York 1999 (Geschichte der bildenden Kunst in Österreich) shows that Slovenia is more isolated and unknown than other countries of the former Habsburg Empire, such as, for example Moravia and Bohemia.

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  • 21. The research on the Middle Ages was after Stele conducted mainly by Emilijan Cevc, Ivan Komelj, Marijan Zadnikar, Ksenija Rozman and Janez Höfler.

  • 22. For the brief overview of the individual research fields with specific names until the 20th century see: Komelj, MilEnciklopedija Slovenije (Encyclopedia of Slovenia), 14, 2000, pp. 3842; Höfler 2004 (see note 4), pp. 5161.

  • 23. Rotar 1995 (see note 3), p. 5.

  • 24. For the rather symplified presentation of the problems of publications in national languages see Brzyski, Anna: Centres and Peripheries. Language Barriers and the Cultural Geography of European Modern Art, in Local Strategies, International Ambitions. Modern Art in Central Europe (ed. Vojtěch Lahoda), Praha 2006.

  • 25. Cf. Rotar 1995 (see note 3), p. 7: “Quantification standards can only hinder research work. The production of new findings appears to be the biggest epistemological hindrance or blockade of the present time.”.

  • 26. In this context, Gombrich's text for the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, translated into Slovenian in 2007, is still topical, Gombrich, Ernst H.: Research in the Humanities. Ideals and Idols, Daedalus. Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Spring 1973 (The Search for Knowledge), pp. 110 (several reprints in Ideals & Idols. Essays on values in history and in art).

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  • 27. While Valvasor introduced himself as Freiherr (baron), the recent findings reveal that he was not entitled to this title. Golec, Boris: Nova spoznanja o življenju in pozabljenem potomstvu Janeza Vajkarda Valvasorja (Summary: New insight into the life of Janez Vajkard Valvasor and his forgotten descendants), in Historični seminar, 6, Ljubljana 2008 (e-book), pp. 77117.

  • 28. For Valvasor and his works see e. g. Radics, Peter von: Johann Weikhard Freiherr von Valvasor (geb. 1641, gest. 1693), Laibach 1910; Reisp, Branko: Kranjski polihistor Janez Vajkard Valvasor (Summary: The Carniolan Polymath Janez Vajkard Valvasor), Ljubljana 1983; Janez Vajkard Valvasor Slovencem in Evropi / Johann Weichard Valvasor to the Slovenes and to Europe (ed. Lojze Gostiša), Narodna galerija, Ljubljana 1989; Murovec, Barbara: Die Zeichnungen des 17. Jahrhunderts im Herzogtum Krain. Der Künstlerkreis um Freiherrn J. W. Valvasor (1641–1693), Barockberichte, 20/21, 1998, pp, 241246.

  • 29. Valvasor, Johann Weichard: Die Ehre deß Hertzogthums Crain, Laybach–Nürnberg 1689.

  • 30. It was exactly in 1693, the year of Valvasor's death, that the Academia operosorum was founded, whose members were directly related to the founding of the first public library in Carniola in 1701. As if the spiritual situation had greatly changed and become open in a few years’ time. Books were only slowly pouring into the Seminary Library as donations, and Valvasor's private library would have been an excellent basis. For the Seminary Library see e. g. Smolik, Marijan: Semeniška knjižnica v Ljubljani (Seminary Library in Ljubljana), Ljubljana 1975 (Kulturni in naravni spomeniki Slovenije 54); for the Academia see e. g. Academia operosorum. Zbornik prispevkov s kolokvija ob 300-letnici ustanovitve (Academia Operosorum. Papers from the Colloquium for on the 300th Anniversary of the Foundation), Ljubljana 1994.

  • 31. Cf. Stele , France: Valvasorjev krog in njegovo grafiGlasnik Muzejskega društva za Slovenijo, 9, 1928, pp. 3031; Gotthardi-Škiljan, Renata: The Valvasor Collection of the Zagreb Archbishopric, in Janez Vajkard Valvasor 1989 (see note 28), pp. 135136.

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  • 32. Held in Bibliotheca Metropolitana (the library of the Zagreb Archbishopric).

  • 33. Schneider, Artur: Izvorni crteži Callotovi u Metropolitanskoj knjižnici zagrebačkoj (Callot's Original Drawings in Metropolitan Library in Zagreb), Zagreb 1913. See also Stele 1928 (see note 31), p. 7, n. 4, 5.

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  • 34. Stele 1928 (see note 31), p. 31.

  • 35. The contents of album IV remained unknown as it was lost; cf. e. g. Gotthardi-Škiljan 1989 (see note 31), p. 136.

  • 36. Wubitsch's prints reveal an interesting insight into a painter's print collection of the second third of the 17th century.

  • 37. See Gotthardi-Škiljan 1989 (see note 31), p. 132, e. g. Ubel, Stella: Izložba Jacques Callot (Exhibition Jaques Callot), Zagreb 1953; Ubel, Stella: A. Dürer. Katalog drvoreza I bakroreza iz Valvasorove zbirke (A. Dürer. Catalogue of Woodcuts from the Valvasor Print Collection), Zagreb 1955; Gotthardi-Škiljan, Renata: Lik Bogorodice u grafici Albrechta Dürera, njegovih kopista I suvremenika iz Valvasorove zbirke Nadbiskupije zagrebačke (Mother of God in Prints of Albrect Dürer and his Copyists in Valvasor's Collection of the Zagreb Archdiocese), Zagreb 1971; Gotthardi-Škiljan, Renata: Martin Schongauer, Lucas van Leyden i njihovi kopisti u grafici Valvasorove zbirke Nadbiskupije zagrebačke (Lucas van Leyden and his Copyists in the Prints from Valvasor's Collection of the Zagreb Archdiocese), Zagreb 1973.

  • 38. Gotthardi-Škiljan, Renata: Justus van der Nypoort. Grafika i crteži iz Valvasorove zbirke Nadbiskupije zagrebačke (Justus van der Nypoort. Prints and Drawings from Valvasor's Collection of the Zagreb Archdiocese), Zagreb 1972.

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  • 39. Ibid., p. 89; Stele's thesis was corroborated by the researches of Uroš Lubej, who managed to reconstruct a great deal of Nypoort's life in his doctoral dissertation. Lubej, Uroš: Justus van der Nypoort (Utrecht, ok. 1645/49, po 1698). Življenje in delo holandskega umetnika na Kranjskem in v drugih deželah nemškega cesarstva (Justus van der Nypoort (Utrecht, c. 1645/49, after 1698). Life and work of Dutch artist in Carniola and Holy Roman Empire), Ljubljana 2008 (typescrypt).

  • 40. Iconotheca Valvasoriana. Predstavitev projekta (Iconotheca Valvasoriana. Project Presentation), (Ljubljana 2003); Iconotheca Valvasoriana in Ljubljana. Pogovor z umetnostnim zgodovinarjem dr. Lojzetom Gostišo, vodjem projekta, urednikom, soavtorjem strokovne obdelave kataloga 16. zvezka in oblikovalcem zbirke (Iconotheca Valvasoriana. Interview with Art Historian Lojze Gostiša, Project Leader, Editor, Co-author of Album XVI and Designer), Ljubljana, 13 (8–9), 2008, pp. 67.

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  • 41. Slovenian libraries do not even have both series of Hollstein or the entire series of The Illustrated Bartsch (however, it should be noted that the Janez Vajkard Valvasor Foundation donated volumes 1–36 of the “German” Hollstein to the Library of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts for the purpose of this project).

  • 42. Academician, dr. prof. Matjaž Kmecl defined the six-year project (17 books), which was only provisionally finished for the occasion of the (ending) of the Slovenian presidency to the European Union, as a proof that Slovenians are the nation of sluggards (see the interview Smo pač mečkači že od nekdaj (We Have Always Been Sluggards), dated 9 January 2009).

  • 43. Cf. Lubej 2008 (see note 39), p. 16.

  • 44. Različni bakrorezi iz Ovidijevih Metamorfoz, iz Vergilijevih in ljubezenskih pesmi ter drugi tem podobni, ki so si jih izmislili, jih narisali in v baker vrezali razni slikarji, bakrorezci in drugi umetniki / Različiti prikazi iz Ovidijevih Metamorfoza, Vergilijevih pjesničkih djela, prikazi ljubavnog sadržaja kao i drugi slični bakrorezi koje su mnogi slikari, bakroresci i drugi umjetnici izmislili, nacrtali i urezali u baker / Various engravings to Ovid's Metamorphoses, Virgil's and love poems as well as other similar engravings, invented, designed and engraved by different painters, engravers and other artists (text Murovec, Barbara), Ljubljana 2007 (Iconotheca Valvasoriana, 10).

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  • 45. Delen, Adrien Jean Joseph: Histoire de la gravure dans les anciens Pays-Bas & dans les provinces belges des origins jusqu’à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, 2: Le XVIe siècle. Les graveurs d'estampes, Paris 1935, p. 99.

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  • 46. In album XVII, a special attention was given to the drawings by David Teniers Jr. Pokorny, Erwin: Unbekannte Zeichnungen von David Teniers dem Jüngeren in der Sammlung Valvasor, Acta historiae artis Slovenica, 11, 2006, pp. 177197.

  • 47. Resman, Blaž: Oltarna oprema in plastika v cerkvi Marijinega oznanjenja (Altar Furnishings and Sculptures in the Church of Announciation), In Frančiškani v Ljubljani (Franciscan Friars in Ljubljana), Ljubljana 2000, pp. 304305.

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