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  • 1 Museum of Applied Art, Budapest
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Abstract

During the Middle Ages, the natural geographical zone of artistic connections was limited to directly neighbouring regions and territories, and these contacts were immediate and interactive in nature. Artistic contacts reaching far beyond the borders of usual trade and cultural exchange zones can be characterized with adjectives such as transregional or continental, rather than interregional. Whenever we face a phenomenon ignoring the logic of the linear spread of styles, it is worth analyzing the tendency of compensation of Europe's cultural map and the process of development of international style phenomena on one hand, and on the other hand, the development of new forms of cultural cooperation and of new social attitudes can be observed. A new line in the research of Hungarian art in the first third of the 13th century focuses on artworks showing a primary connection to faraway French gothic art centres. While analyzing the new church of Pannonhalma, built ca. 1220, and the sepulchral monuments of Pilis abbey (ca. 1230), the aim of this presentation is to find new viewpoints to the history of unusual and exceptional faraway connections, to the questions of channels and mechanisms of transregional cultural cooperation, to the special reasons and ways of long distance cultural transport. The recent inspiration of French models can be analyzed from and artistic geographical point of view as well, although its socio-historical connections are also of interest. The traceable channels of this phenomenon are mostly well-documented motivations of primarily political connections of ruling dynasties and their immediate environment.

  • 1. Marosi, E.: Die Anfänge der Gotik in Ungarn. Esztergom in der Kunst des 12–13. Jahrhunderts, Budapest 1984, 67–73.; cf.: Sauerländer, W., Das Jahrhundert der großen Katedralen 1140–1260, München 1990, p. 394.

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  • 2. Bony, J., The Resistance to Chartres in Early Thirteenth Century Architecture, Journal of the British Archaeological Association 3rd ser., XX–XXI (1957–1958), pp. 3552.

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  • 3. See : Gabriel, A., Les rapports dynastiques franco-hongrois au Moyen Age, Budapest 1944.

  • 4. Andrew II's second grand seal from a charter of 1216, see: Budapest, National Archives [Országos Levéltár], Dl 74, 76, 80; Gerevich, T., Magyarország románkori emlékei, Budapest 1938, fig. CCXXXIII/5.

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  • 5. For the earliest surviving example of his gold seal from 1221, see: Budapest, National Archives [Országos Levéltár], Dl 39250; Kovács, É, Árpád-kori ötvösség, Budapest 1974, fig. 26.

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  • 6. Szentpétery, I., II. Endre király pecsétjei az oklevélkritika szempontjából, [The seals of Andrew II from the point of view of diplomatic], Turul 34 (1916), fig. 4.

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  • 7. The grandfather of the Hungarian queen, Pierre de France (†1183), was the seventh child of King Louis VI. Through his wife, Elisabeth de Courtenay, he acquired among others, the property of the Courtenay family, which bears the family name. His son, Pierre II, seigneur de Courtenay et Montargis, by marrying his first wife, Agnes de Nevers, acquired the counties of Nevers, Auxerres and Tonerre. Through his second wife, Yolande de Hainaut, he gained the title Marquis of Namur. For the medieval genealogy of the Courtenay family, see: Bouchet, J. M., Histoire généalogique de la maison royale de Courtenay… Paris 1661, 3.; Anselm, P. – du Fourny, M., Historie généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, I, Paris 1726, pp. 473536. See also de Courcelles, M., Histoire généalogique et héraldique des pairs de France…, I, Paris 1822, 65–67. For the connections between the Courtenay family and the Árpád dynasty, see: Gabriel, A., Les rapports dynastiques franco-hongrois au Moyen Age, Budapest 1944, p. 33f.

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  • 8. Lock, P., The Franks in the Aegean, 1204–1500, London – New York 1995, pp. 6061.

  • 9. Frater eiusdem Philippi Robertus nomine in imperatorem Constantinopolitanum tanquam heres assumitur, in cuius diebus de iis, que in Grecia fuerant acquisita, Latini perdiderunt multa, cum ille esset quasi rudis et idiota. Chronica Albrici monachi Trium Fontium; MGH SS, XXIII. 910:40. cf. The Cambridge Medieval History. IV. The Byzantine Empire, I, Ed. Hussey, J. M. 309.

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  • 10. A History of the Crusades, II, ed. Lee Wolff, R.Harry W. Hazard, Madison – Milwaukee – London 1969, 213214; Bouchet, J. M., Histoire généalogique de la maison royale de Courtenay…, Paris 1661, p. 62.; Buchon, J. A., Histoire de l'empire de Constantinople sous les empereurs français jusqu’à la conquête des turcs, par du Fresne du Cange, I, Paris 1826, 168f.; Santifaller, L., Beiträge zur Geschichte des Lateinischen Patriarchats von Konstantinopel (1204–1261) und der venezianischen Urkunde, Weimar 1938, 34.

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  • 11. For the hypothesis of Villard's direct connection with Robert de Courtenay see: Takács, I.: The French Connection. On the Courtenay Family and Villard de Honnecourt apropos a 13th Century Incised Slab from Pilis Abbey, in: Künstlerische Wechselwirkungen in Mitteleuropa, ed. Fajt, J. – Hörsch, M. Ostfildern 2006, 11–27,.

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  • 12. Pannonia Regia, ed. Mikó, Á. – Takács, I. Exh. Cat. Budapest 1994, pp. 246247.; For the chronology of the Esztergom torso see: Takács, I.: The French Connection. On the Courtenay Family and Villard de Honnecourt apropos a 13th Century Incised Slab from Pilis Abbey, in: Künstlerische Wechselwirkungen in Mitteleuropa, ed. Fajt, J. – Hörsch, M. Ostfildern, 2006, p. 21, fig. 12. For the Laon cathedral sculptures see: Lambert, E., Les portails sculptés de la cathédrale de Laon. Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 17 (1937), p. 162.; Sauerländer, W., La sculpture gothique en France, 1140–1270, Paris 1972, pp. 105–109; Clark, W. W. – King, R., The Cathedral of Notre-Dame at Laon, II, London 1986; for Nevers cathedral sculptures see: Beaulieu, M. – Baron, F., Les cariatides de la cathédrale de Nevers. Bulletin Monumental 124 (1966), p. 363ff.; Sauerländer, W., Von Sens bis Straßburg, Berlin 1966, p. 102f.

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  • 13. For the Laon-Sens-Chartres relationship see: Vöge, W., Die Bahnbrecher des Naturstudiums um 1200, in: Bildhauer des Mittelalters. Gesammelte Studien, Berlin 1995(2), pp. 6397; Sauerländer, W., Tombeaux chartrains du premier quart du XIIIe siècle. L'information d'Histoire de l’Art 9 (1964), p. 47f.; Claussen, P. C., Chartres-Studien. Zur Vorgeschichte, Funktion und Skulptur der Vorhallen, Wiesbaden 1975, pp. 101125; Büchsel, M., Die Skulptur des Querhauses der Kathedrale von Chartres. Berlin 1995, pp. 98101; Kurmann-Schwarz, B. – Kurmann, P., Chartres. La cathédrale, Pierre-qui-Vire s.a. [2001], pp. 283302.

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  • 14. From 1207 to 1209 he was the provost of Székesfehérvár and royal chancellor. Between 1209 and 1226 he was the bishop of Veszprém, and later archbishop of Esztergom until 1239. Monumenta ecclesiae Strigoniensis, ed. Knauz, I. F. Strigonii 1874, pp. 257259. About his origin: Chronica Albrici monachi Trium Fontium a monacho novi monasterii Hoiensis interpolate. MGH SS, XXIII. 920.

  • 15. On the excavation of the Pilis abbey: Gerevich, L., Pilis Abbey a Cultural Center, Acta Archaeologic a 29 (1977), pp. 155198; Ibid., Les fouilles de l'abbaye hongroise de Pilis, in: Mélanges Anselme Dimier, III/5, Arbois 1982, 371–393; Ibid., Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen in der Zisterzienserabtei Pilis, Acta Archaeologica 37 (1985), pp. 111152, esp. 136141. The fragments of the tomb are preserved in the Hungarian National Gallery; see: Takács, I., Fragmente des Grabmals der Königin Gertrudis, in: Die Andechs-Meranier in Franken. Europäisches Fürstentum im Hochmittelalter, Exh. Cat. Mainz 1998, pp. 103109, 276280.

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  • 16. For the life of Queen Gertrude and for the political role of the Andechs Meran family see Schütz, A., Die Andechs-Meranier in Franken und ihre Rolle in de europäischen Politik des Hochmittelalter, in: Die Andechs-Meranier in Franken. Exh. Cat. Mainz 1998, pp. 354; and Takács, op. cit. (note 15), pp. 103109.

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  • 17. For example tomb of Adélais, countess of Joigny, formerly in the abbey of Dilo; see Vallery-Radot, J., Tombeau d'Adélaïs, comtesse de Joigny, Congrès Archéologique 116 (1958); McGee Morganstern, A., Gothic Tombs of Kinship in France, the Low Countries, and England, Pennsylvania 2000, pp. 1921.

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  • 18. Sauerländer, W., Tombeaux chartrains du premier quart du XIIIe siècle, L’Information d'Histoire de l’Art 2, 1964, 47–60.

  • 19. For example the archivolt figures and relieves of the Callixtus portal and the Last Judgment portal; See Vitry, P., La cathédrale de Reims. Architecture et sculpture, II, Paris 1919, Pl. XXV/2, XXIX/3, XLIII/1. Similar pieces are among the small fragments form the relieves of the north transept portals now exhibited in Palais du Tau. See: Muller, J. L. H., Joyaux de sculpture, Reims, Paris, 1954, Pl. 4142.

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  • 20. Indeed it is very difficult to unravel the link between the two lodges. See Kurmann, P., La façade de la cathédrale de Reims. Architecture et sculpture des portails. Étude archéologique et stylistique, Paris 1987, p. 59; cf. Kurmann-Schwarz, B. – Kurmann, P., Chartres. La cathédrale, Pierre-qui-Vire, s. a. [2001], 301302.

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  • 21. About the reconstruction of coat of arms on the broken shield of the sepulchral monument see Takács, op. cit. (note 15), 16.

  • 22. Cf. the inscription of a drawing of Villard representing a floor tile composition which “he has seen in a Hungarian church”. Hahnloser, H. R., Villard de Honnecourt. Kritische Gesamtausgabe des Bauhüttenbuches ms. fr 19093 der Pariser Nationalbibliothek, Vienna 1935; new ed., Graz 1972, Taf. 30a.

  • 23. Bougslag, J., St Eustace and St George: Crusading Saints in the Sculpture and Stained Glass of Chartres Cathedral, Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 66 (2003), p. 441ff.

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  • 24. On the Gothic stylistic connections of Pannonhalma, see: I. Takács, I., Die Erneuerung der Abteikirche von Pannonhalma im 13. Jahrhundert, Acta Historiae Artium 38 (1996), pp. 5255; Takács, I., Pannonhalma, in: Paradisum plantavit. Benedictine Monasteries in Medieval Hungary, Exh. Cat. Pannonhalma 2001, 318–319, 672.

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  • 25. I am discussing mainly about the decoration of the three lancets on the wall of the central nave behind the gable of the Callixtus Portal. See these rarely illustrated details: Ravaux, J.-P., Les campagnes de construction de la cathédrale de Reims au XIIIe siècle, Bulletin Monumentale 137 (1979), p. 33; Hamann-Mac Lean, P. – Schüssler, I., Die Kathedrale von Reims, I/2, Stuttgart 1993, pp. 204205, Abb. 209–210. For the masks see Vitry, P., La cathédrale de Reims. Architecture et sculpture, II, Paris 1919, Pl. LXXXVIII.

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  • 26. For the information about biography of Bartholomew of Brançion see: Takács, I. op. cit. (note 15) p. 20.

  • 27. On the sculptures from Pécs, since disappeared, see: Koller, J., Historia Episcopatus Quinqueecclesiarum, I, Posonii 1782, tab. XVI. For more contemporary and stylistically related fragments, see: Szőnyi, O., A pécsi Püspöki Múzeum kőtára [The Lapidary of the Cathedral Museum in Pécs], Pécs 1906, no. 324, 330.

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  • 28. Vöge, W., Die Bahnbrecher des Naturstudiums um 1200, in: Bildhauer des Mittelalters, ed. Panofsky, E. Berlin 1958, pp. 4450.