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  • 1 University of Connecticut, 55 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269, United States
  • | 2 Vapourtec Ltd., Bury St. Edmunds IP28 6TS, United Kingdom
  • | 3 University of Connecticut Health Center, The Exchange, 263 Farmington Ave, Farmington, CT 06030, United States
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The catalyzed and uncatalyzed preparation of ethyl levulinate from levulinic acid and ethanol is presented. In the case of acid-catalyzed reactions, conditions were optimized in batch using microwave heating and then scaled-up using continuousflow processing. Both p-toluenesulfonic acid and sulfuric acid were used as catalysts, the latter proving most amenable. For the uncatalyzed reactions, all reactions were performed under continuous-flow conditions, using apparatus capable of operating at high temperature and pressure. Optimal conditions for the uncatalyzed process required heating a 3.6-M solution of levulinic acid in ethanol at 270 °C with a residence time of 30 min.

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  • Impact Factor (2019): 3.622
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 0.795
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 20
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q1 Chemistry (miscellenous)
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q1 Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q2 Organic Chemistry
  • Impact Factor (2018): 2.277
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 0.58
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 17
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q1 Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q2 Organic Chemistry

Journal of Flow Chemistry
Language English
Size A4
Year of
Foundation
2011
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Áramlásos Kémiai Tudományos Társaság
Founder's
Address
H-1031 Budapest, Hungary Záhony utca 7.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Springer Nature Switzerland AG
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
CH-6330 Cham, Switzerland Gewerbestrasse 11
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2062-249X (Print)
ISSN 2063-0212 (Online)