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  • 1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  • 2 Host-Microbe Interactomics, Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
  • 3 Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK
  • 4 Microbiology Unit, BioMérieux, La Balme les Grottes, France
  • 5 Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, 's-Gravendijkwal 230, 3015 CE, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Abstract

Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with both host factors and bacterial factors being involved in the pathogenesis of bacteremia. In the host, age, gender and immune-compromising conditions may predispose for Campylobacter infections, whilst the most important bacterial determinants mentioned in the literature are cytotoxin production and flagellar motility. The role of sialylated lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) and serum resistance in bacteremia is inconclusive at this time, and the clinical significance of Campylobacter bacteremia is not yet fully understood. More emphasis on the detection of Campylobacter species from blood cultures in susceptible patients at risk for Campylobacter infections will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis and the relevance of Campylobacter bacteremia.

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