View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Psychiatry and Addictive Medicine, AP-HP, Bichat Claude Bernard Hospital, 75877, Paris Cedex 18, France
  • 2 Maison Blanche Hospital, Paris, France
Restricted access


Aim of the study: We assessed exercise dependence (ED), alcohol and nicotine use disorders, eating disorders, hypochondria and compulsive buying and in a population of customers of a Parisian sport shop. Methods: Five hundred consecutive customers of a sport shop were invited to participate. Diagnostic of exercise dependence was made with the Exercise Addiction Inventory and a specific questionnaire checking all diagnostic criteria. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for bulimia, alcohol and nicotine use disorders were checked and all subjects answered the CAGE and Fagerström questionnaires. Hypochondria was assessed with the DSM-IV-TR criteria and the Whiteley Index of Health Anxiety. For all parameters, customers with (ED+) and without (ED-) exercise dependence were compared. Results: The prevalence of exercise dependence was 29.6%. Subjects from the ED+ group were younger than in the ED-group (27.1 vs 29.8 years) and there were more women. They were more dependent on alcohol, had higher scores at the CAGE questionnaire. ED+ subjects more often presented hypochondria (23 vs 15%), bulimia and binge eating and they more often made gifts to themselves and to others. Conclusions: Exercise dependence appears as a frequent and almost always unrecognized form of behavioral dependence in non clinical population frequenting sport shops. It is frequently associated to chemical dependence and eating disorders.

  • F. Achour P. Brun M. Mc Loughlin J. Adès M. Lejoyeux 2004 Lifestyle characteristics of patients admitted to a French medical emergency service Alcohol Research 9 4 167 170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D. Bamber I. M. Cockerill S. Rodgers D. Carroll 2000 The pathological status of exercise dependence British Journal of Sports Medicine 34 125 132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. J. Blaydon K. J. Lindner 2002 Eating disorders and exercise dependence in Triathletes Eating Disorders. The Journal of Treatment and Prevention 10 49 60.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. H. M. De Moor A. L. Beem J. H. Stubbe D. I. Boomsma E. J. C. De Geus 2006 Regular exercise, anxiety, depression and personality: A population based study Preventive Medicine 42 273 279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. A. Ewing 1984 Detecting alcoholism: The CAGE questionnaire JAMA 252 1905.

  • K. O. Fagerström N. G. Schneider 1989 Measuring nicotine dependence: A review of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire Journal of Behavioral Medicine 12 2 159 182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. F. Garman D. M. Hayduk D. A. Crider M. M. Hodel 2004 Occurrence of exercise dependence in a college-aged population Journal of American College Health 52 5 221 228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • S. Grandi C. Clementi J. Guidi M. Benassi E. Tossani 2011 Personality characteristics and psychological distress associated with primary exercise dependence: An exploratory study Psychiatry Research 189 2 270 275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. E. Grant M. G. Kushner S. W. Kim 2002 Pathological gambling and alcohol use disorder Alcohol Research & Health 26 2 143 150.

  • J. Guidi M. Pender S. D. Hollon S. Zisook F. H. Schwartz P. Pedrelli A. Farabaugh M. Fava T. J. Petersen 2009 The prevalence of compulsive eating and exercise among college students: An exploratory study Psychiatry Research 165 1 154 162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • H. H. Hausenblas P. R. Giacobbi Jr 2004 Relationship between exercise dependence symptoms and personality Personality and Individual Differences 36 1265 1273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • H. H. Hausenblas D. Symons Downs 2002 Exercise dependence: A systematic review Psychology of sport and exercise 3 89 123.

  • M. Lejoyeux M. Avril C. Richoux H. Embouazza F. Nivoli 2008 Prevalence of exercise dependence and other behavioral addictions among clients of a Parisian fitness room Comprehensive Psychiatry 49 4 353 359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • M. Lejoyeux A. Weinstein 2010 Compulsive buying American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 36 5 248 253.

  • M. P. Mc Cabe L. A. Ricciardelli 2004 Body image dissatisfaction among male across the lifespan. A review of past literature Journal of Psychosomatic Research 56 675 685.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • J. Ogden 2004 Exercise J. Ogden Health psychology: A textbook Open University Press Berkshire 168 182.

  • I. Pilowsky 1967 Dimensions of hypochondriasis British Journal of Psychiatry 131 89 93.

  • C. Richoux I. Ferrand E. Casalino B. Fleury C. Ginsburg M. Lejoyeux 2011 Alcohol use disorders in the emergency ward: Choice of the best mode of assessment and identification of at-risk situations International Journal of Emergency Medicine 4 27.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D. V. Sheehan Y. Lecrubier K. Harnett Sheehan P. Amorim J. Janavs E. Weiller T. Hergueta R. Baker G. C. Dunbar 1997 The validity of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) according to the SCID-P and its reliability Eur. Psychiatry 12 232 241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • A. Terrry A. Szabo M. Griffiths 2004 The exercise addiction inventory: A new brief screening tool Addiction Research and Theory 2004 12 5 489 499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D. Veale 1995 Does primary exercise dependence really exist? J. Annett B. Cripps H. Steinberg Exercise addiction: Motivation for participation in sport and exercise British Psychological Society Leicester 1 5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • C. F. Zmijewski M. O. Howard 2003 Exercise dependence and attitudes toward eating among young adults Eating Behaviors 4 181 195.

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

  • Impact Factor (2019): 5.143
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2019): 1.767
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2019): 37
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q1 Clinical Psychology (20/295)
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q1 Psychiatry and Mental Health (49/545)
  • SJR Quartile Score (2019): Q1 Medicine (miscellaneous) (186/2754)


  • Impact Factor (2018): 4.873
  • Scimago Journal Rank (2018): 1.624
  • SJR Hirsch-Index (2018): 29
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q1 Clinical Psychology (26/293)
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q1 Psychiatry and Mental Health (62/555)
  • SJR Quartile Score (2018): Q1 Medicine (miscellaneous) (217/2844)


Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Web of Science [Science Citation Index Expanded (also known as SciSearch®)
  • Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition
  • Social Sciences Citation Index®
  • Journal Citation Reports/ Social Sciences Edition
  • Current Contents®/Social and Behavioral Sciences
  • GoogleScholar
  • PsychInfo
  • PubMed Central
  • Medline

Language: English

Founded in 2011
Publication: One volume of four issues annually

Publishing Model: Gold Open Access
Article processing charge: EUR 850.00 (as for discounts, please, check Author's instructions

Publication Programme: 2020. Vol. 9.

Senior editors

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Zsolt Demetrovics

Assistant Editor(s): Csilla Ágoston

Associate Editors

  • Judit Balázs (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Joel Billieux (University of Lausanne, Switzerland)
  • Matthias Brand (University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany)
  • Anneke Goudriaan (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Daniel King (Flinders University, Australia)
  • Ludwig Kraus (IFT Institute for Therapy Research, Germany)
  • Anikó Maráz (Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany)
  • Astrid Müller (Hannover Medical School, Germany)
  • Marc N. Potenza (Yale University, USA)
  • Hans-Jurgen Rumpf (University of Lübeck, Germany)
  • Attila Szabó (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Róbert Urbán (ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Aviv M. Weinstein (Ariel University, Israel)

Editorial Board

  • Max W. Abbott (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand)
  • Elias N. Aboujaoude (Stanford University School of Medicine, USA)
  • Hojjat Adeli (Ohio State University, USA)
  • Alex Baldacchino (University of Dundee, United Kingdom)
  • Alex Blaszczynski (University of Sidney, Australia)
  • Kenneth Blum (University of Florida, USA)
  • Henrietta Bowden-Jones (Imperial College, United Kingdom)
  • Beáta Bőthe (University of Montreal, Canada)
  • Wim van den Brink (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Gerhard Bühringer (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany)
  • Sam-Wook Choi (Eulji University, Republic of Korea)
  • Damiaan Denys (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Jeffrey L. Derevensky (McGill University, Canada)
  • Naomi Fineberg (University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom)
  • Marie Grall-Bronnec (University Hospital of Nantes, France)
  • Jon E. Grant (University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Mark Griffiths (Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom)
  • Heather Hausenblas (Jacksonville University, USA)
  • Tobias Hayer (University of Bremen, Germany)
  • Susumu Higuchi (National Hospital Organization Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center, Japan)
  • David Hodgins (University of Calgary, Canada)
  • Eric Hollander (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, USA)
  • Jaeseung Jeong (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Republic of Korea)
  • Yasser Khazaal (Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland)
  • Orsolya Király (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Emmanuel Kuntsche (La Trobe University, Australia)
  • Hae Kook Lee (The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea)
  • Michel Lejoyeux (Paris University, France)
  • Anikó Maráz (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Giovanni Martinotti (‘Gabriele d’Annunzio’ University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)
  • Frederick Gerard Moeller (University of Texas, USA)
  • Daniel Thor Olason (University of Iceland, Iceland)
  • Nancy Petry (University of Connecticut, USA)
  • Bettina Pikó (University of Szeged, Hungary)
  • Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar (Teheran University of Medical Sciences, Iran)
  • József Rácz (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
  • Rory C. Reid (University of California Los Angeles, USA)
  • Marcantanio M. Spada (London South Bank University, United Kingdom)
  • Daniel Spritzer (Study Group on Technological Addictions, Brazil)
  • Dan J. Stein (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
  • Sherry H. Stewart (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  • Attila Szabó (Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary)
  • Ferenc Túry (Semmelweis University, Hungary)
  • Alfred Uhl (Austrian Federal Health Institute, Austria)
  • Johan Vanderlinden (University Psychiatric Center K.U.Leuven, Belgium)
  • Alexander E. Voiskounsky (Moscow State University, Russia)
  • Kimberly Young (Center for Internet Addiction, USA)

Dr. Zsolt Demetrovics
Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University
Address: Izabella u. 46. H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: +36-1-461-2681

Including gaming disorder in the ICD-11: The need to do so from a clinical and public health perspective

Commentary on: A weak scientific basis for gaming disorder: Let us err on the side of caution (van Rooij et al., 2018)