View More View Less
  • 1 Istanbul University Faculty of Political Sciences Istanbul Turkey
Restricted access

Turkey faces a tremendous pressure for adjusting its governance structure to the EU accession requirements. The challenge seems to touch upon some core aspects of political transformation such as the emergence and self-organising power of an autonomous civil society, and the mobilisation of societal actors beyond the national boundaries on European level. The European impact on the governmental logic also corresponds with an extremely fragile process of consolidation of democracy in Turkey. However, Turkish democracy is still fragile and far from being consolidated. In this context, the paper argues that a successful process of consolidation of democracy is conditioned by three factors: (1) a moderation of the demands of the social forces in the country; (2) a governmental strategy based on the accommodation of these demands with a tolerant political perspective; and (3) a serious engagement by the leading circles with the problems of governance in the country both in the centre and on the periphery.

  • Alpay, Ó. (2004): Crisis in the Identity Politics of Turkey. In: Ahmed, I. (ed.): The Politics of Group Rights: The State and Multiculturalism . Lanham: University Press of America, 101–128.

    Alpay , '', in The Politics of Group Rights: The State and Multiculturalism , (2004 ) -.

  • Armstrong, K. (2002): Rediscovering civil society: The European Union and the White Paper on governance. European Law Journal , 8(1): 102–132.

    Armstrong K. , 'Rediscovering civil society: The European Union and the White Paper on governance ' (2002 ) 8 European Law Journal : 102 -132.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Avrupa Birliçi Genel Sekreterliçi (2007): Türkiye’de Siyasi Reform . Ankara: T. C. Baûbakanlýk.

    '', in Türkiye’de Siyasi Reform , (2007 ) -.

  • Berger, S. (1979): Politics and antipolitics in Western Europe in the seventies. Daedalus , 108: 27–50.

    Berger S. , 'Politics and antipolitics in Western Europe in the seventies ' (1979 ) 108 Daedalus : 27 -50.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Crouch, C. (1986): Sharing public space: States and organized interests in Western Europe. In: Hall, J. A. (ed.): States in History . Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 177–210.

    Crouch C. , '', in States in History , (1986 ) -.

  • Dagi, I. (1996): Democratic transition in Turkey: The impact of European diplomacy. Middle Eastern Studies , 32(2).

  • EC (2001): European Governance: A White Paper . Brussels: European Commission, COM (2001)428 Final.

    '', in European Governance: A White Paper , (2001 ) -.

  • EC (2003): Regular Report on Turkey’s Progress towards Accession . Brussels: European Commission.

    '', in Regular Report on Turkey’s Progress towards Accession , (2003 ) -.

  • EC (2004a): Regular Report on Turkey’s Progress towards Accession . Brussels, European Commission, SEC(2004)1201.

    '', in Regular Report on Turkey’s Progress towards Accession , (2004 ) -.

  • EC (2004b): Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. 6.10.2004, Brussels: European Commission, COM(2004)656 final, 9.

    '', in Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament , (2004 ) -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Eralp, A. (1990): The Politics of Turkish Development Strategies: In: Finkel, A. — Sirman, N. (eds): Turkish State Turkish Society . London: Routledge, 219–258.

    Eralp A. , '', in Turkish State Turkish Society , (1990 ) -.

  • Eralp, A. (1993): Turkey and the European Community in the changing post-war international system. In: Balkir, C. — Williams, A. (eds): Turkey and Europe . London: Pinter Publishers, 24–45.

    Eralp A. , '', in Turkey and Europe , (1993 ) -.

  • Espig-Andersen, G. (1992): Three Political Economies of the Welfare State. In: Kolberg, J. E. (ed.): The Study of Welfare State Regimes . London, M.E. Sharpe, 92–123.

    Espig-Andersen G. , '', in The Study of Welfare State Regimes , (1992 ) -.

  • Fligstein, N. — Mara-Drita, I. (1996): How to make a market: Reflections on the attempt to create a single market in the European Union. American Journal of Sociology , 102(1): 1–33.

    Mara-Drita I. , 'How to make a market: Reflections on the attempt to create a single market in the European Union ' (1996 ) 102 American Journal of Sociology : 1 -33.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Fligstein, N. — McNichol, J. (1998): Institutional terrain of the European Union. In: Sandholtz, W. — Sweet, A. S. (eds): European Integration and Supranational Governance . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 59–91.

    McNichol J. , '', in European Integration and Supranational Governance , (1998 ) -.

  • Gellner, E. (1994): Kemalism. In: Gellner, E.: Encounters with Nationalism . Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 81–91.

    Gellner E. , '', in Encounters with Nationalism , (1994 ) -.

  • Glyptis, L. (2005): The cost of rapproachements: Turkey’s erratic EU dream as a clash of systemic values. Turkish Studies , 6(3): 403.

    Glyptis L. , 'The cost of rapproachements: Turkey’s erratic EU dream as a clash of systemic values ' (2005 ) 6 Turkish Studies : 403 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gordon, N. (2001): Dahl’s procedural democracy: A Foucauldian critique. Democratization , 8(4): 23–40.

    Gordon N. , 'Dahl’s procedural democracy: A Foucauldian critique ' (2001 ) 8 Democratization : 23 -40.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Grabbe, H. (2001): How does Europeanisation affect CEE governance? Conditionality, diffusion and diversity. Journal of European Public Policy , 8(6): 1013–1031.

    Grabbe H. , 'How does Europeanisation affect CEE governance? Conditionality, diffusion and diversity ' (2001 ) 8 Journal of European Public Policy : 1013 -1031.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Heper, M. (1985): The State Tradition in Turkey . Beverly: The Eothen Press.

    Heper M. , '', in The State Tradition in Turkey , (1985 ) -.

  • Heper, M. — Evin, A. (eds) (1994): Politics in the Third Turkish Republic . Boulder: Westview Press.

    '', in Politics in the Third Turkish Republic , (1994 ) -.

  • Hirst, P. (2002): Democracy and governance. In: Pierre, J. (ed.): Debating Governance: Authority Steering and Democracy . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 13–35.

    Hirst P. , '', in Debating Governance: Authority Steering and Democracy , (2002 ) -.

  • Hooghe, L. (1998): EU cohesion policy and competing models of European capitalism. Journal of Common Market Studies , 36(4): 457–477.

    Hooghe L. , 'EU cohesion policy and competing models of European capitalism ' (1998 ) 36 Journal of Common Market Studies : 457 -477.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hooghe, L. — Marks, G. (2003): Unraveling the central-state, but how? Types of multilevel governance. American Political Science Review , 97(2): 233–245.

    Marks G. , 'Unraveling the central-state, but how? Types of multilevel governance ' (2003 ) 97 American Political Science Review : 233 -245.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hueglin, T. O. (1989): Better small and beautiful than big and ugly? Regionalism, capitalism, and the postindustrial state. International Political Science Review , 10(3): 209–221.

    Hueglin T. O. , 'Better small and beautiful than big and ugly? Regionalism, capitalism, and the postindustrial state ' (1989 ) 10 International Political Science Review : 209 -221.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Inglehart, R. (1971): The silent revolution in Europe: Intergenerational change in post-industrial societies. American Political Science Review , 65: 991–1017.

    Inglehart R. , 'The silent revolution in Europe: Intergenerational change in post-industrial societies ' (1971 ) 65 American Political Science Review : 991 -1017.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Insel, A. (2003): The AKP and normalizing democracy in Turkey. The South Atlantic Quarterly , 102: 299.

    Insel A. , 'The AKP and normalizing democracy in Turkey ' (2003 ) 102 The South Atlantic Quarterly : 299 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Joerges, C. (2002): Deliberative supranationalism: Two defenses. European Law Journal , 8(1):133–151.

    Joerges C. , 'Deliberative supranationalism: Two defenses ' (2002 ) 8 European Law Journal : 133 -151.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Keane, J. (1988): Despotism and democracy: The origins and development of the distinction between civil society and the state 1750–1850. In: Keane, J. (ed.): Civil Society and the State. New European Perspectives . London: Verso, 35–71.

    Keane J. , '', in Civil Society and the State. New European Perspectives , (1988 ) -.

  • Keating, M. (1988): Is there a regional level of government in Europe? In: Le Gales, P. — Lequesne, C. (eds): Regions in Europe . New York: Routledge, 11–30.

    Keating M. , '', in Regions in Europe , (1988 ) -.

  • Keating, M. (2002): Europe’s changing political landscape: Territorial restructuring and new forms of governance. In: Beaumont, P. — Lyons, C. — Walker, N. (eds): Convergence and Divergence in European Public Law . Oxford: Hart, 2–18.

    Keating M. , '', in Convergence and Divergence in European Public Law , (2002 ) -.

  • Keyder, C. (2004): The Turkish bell jar. New Left Review , 82.

  • Keyder, C. (2006): Moving in from the margins? Turkey in Europe. Diogenes , 210: 78.

    Keyder C. , 'Moving in from the margins? Turkey in Europe ' (2006 ) 210 Diogenes : 78 -.

  • Kinzer, S. (2003): The quite revolution. The American Prospect , 14 December, 13–15.

  • Kitschelt, H. (1986): Political opportunity structures and political protest: anti-nuclear movements in four countries. British Journal of Political Science , 16(1): 57–85.

    Kitschelt H. , 'Political opportunity structures and political protest: anti-nuclear movements in four countries ' (1986 ) 16 British Journal of Political Science : 57 -85.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kitschelt, H. (1995): A silent revolution in Europe? In: Hayward, J. — Page, E. C. (eds): Governing the New Europe . Cambridge: Polity Press, 123–165.

    Kitschelt H. , '', in Governing the New Europe , (1995 ) -.

  • Le Gales, P. (2001): Est Maître Des Lieux Celui Qui Les Organise: How rules change when national and European policy domains collide. In: Sweet, A. S. et al.: The Institutionalization of Europe . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 137–154.

    Gales P. , '', in The Institutionalization of Europe , (2001 ) -.

  • Mardin, S. (1969): Power, civil society and culture in the Ottoman Empire. Comparative Studies in Society and History , 11(3): 258–281.

    Mardin S. , 'Power, civil society and culture in the Ottoman Empire ' (1969 ) 11 Comparative Studies in Society and History : 258 -281.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Mardin, S. (1973): Center-periphery relations: A key to Turkish politics? Daedalus , 102(1): 169–190.

    Mardin S. , 'Center-periphery relations: A key to Turkish politics? ' (1973 ) 102 Daedalus : 169 -190.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marks, G. — Adam, D. (1996): Social movements and the changing structure of political opportunity in the European Union. In: Marks, G. et al.: Governance in the European Union . London: Sage, 95–120.

    Adam D. , '', in Governance in the European Union , (1996 ) -.

  • Offe, C. (1985): New social movements: Challenging the boundaries of institutional politics. Social Research , 52: 817–868.

    Offe C. , 'New social movements: Challenging the boundaries of institutional politics ' (1985 ) 52 Social Research : 817 -868.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Olsen, J. (2002): The many faces of Europeanisation. Journal of Common Market Studies , 40(5): 924.

    Olsen J. , 'The many faces of Europeanisation ' (2002 ) 40 Journal of Common Market Studies : 924 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ozbudun, O. (1976): Social Change and Political Participation in Turkey . Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Ozbudun O. , '', in Social Change and Political Participation in Turkey , (1976 ) -.

  • Pamuk, S. (1981): Political economy of industrialization in Turkey. MERIP Reports .

  • Polat, N. (2006): Identity politics and domestic context of Turkey’s European Union accession. Government and Opposition , 14(4): 531.

    Polat N. , 'Identity politics and domestic context of Turkey’s European Union accession ' (2006 ) 14 Government and Opposition : 531 -.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Risse, T. — Cowles, M. G. — Caporaso, J. (2001): Europeanisation and domestic change: Introduction. In: Cowles, M. G. et al.: Transforming Europe: Europeanisation and Domestic Change . New York: Cornell University Press.

    Caporaso J. , '', in Transforming Europe: Europeanisation and Domestic Change , (2001 ) -.

  • Óahin, Ó. (2005): The rise of Alevism as a public religion. Current Antropology , 53(3): 465–485.

    Óahin , 'The rise of Alevism as a public religion ' (2005 ) 53 Current Antropology : 465 -485.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sandel, M. J. (2000): Democracy’s discontent: The procedural republic. In: Eberly, D. (ed.): The Essential Civil Society Reader: The Classical Essays . Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 269–301.

    Sandel M. J. , '', in The Essential Civil Society Reader: The Classical Essays , (2000 ) -.

  • Scharpf, F. W. (1996): Negative and positive integration in the political economy of European welfare states. In: Marks, G. et al.: Governance in the European Union . London: Sage Publications, 15–39.

    Scharpf F. W. , '', in Governance in the European Union , (1996 ) -.

  • Schmitter, P. (1998): Some basic assumptions about the consolidation of democracy. In: Inoguchi, T. — Newman, E. — Keane, J. (eds): The Changing Nature of Democracy . Tokyo: UN University Press, 23–36.

    Schmitter P. , '', in The Changing Nature of Democracy , (1998 ) -.

  • Scholte, J. A. (2002): Civil society and democracy in global governance. Global Governance , 8: 281–304.

    Scholte J. A. , 'Civil society and democracy in global governance ' (2002 ) 8 Global Governance : 281 -304.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sharpe, L. J. (1979): Decentralist Trends in Western Democracies . London: Sage Publications.

    Sharpe L. J. , '', in Decentralist Trends in Western Democracies , (1979 ) -.

  • Sharpe, L. J. (1989): Fragmentation and Territoriality in the European State System. International Political Science Review , 10(3): 223–238.

    Sharpe L. J. , 'Fragmentation and Territoriality in the European State System ' (1989 ) 10 International Political Science Review : 223 -238.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Skidelsky, R. (1979): The decline of Keynesian politics. In: Crouch, C. (ed.): State and Economy in Contemporary Capitalism . London: Croom Helm, 55–87.

    Skidelsky R. , '', in State and Economy in Contemporary Capitalism , (1979 ) -.

  • Smismans, S. (2003): European civil society: Shaped by discourses and institutional interests. European Law Journal , 9(4): 473–495.

    Smismans S. , 'European civil society: Shaped by discourses and institutional interests ' (2003 ) 9 European Law Journal : 473 -495.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Streeck, W. (1996): Public power beyond the nation-state: The case of the European community. In: Boyer, R. — Drache, D. (eds): States against Markets: The Limits of Globalization . London: Routledge, 299–315.

    Streeck W. , '', in States against Markets: The Limits of Globalization , (1996 ) -.

  • Tarrow, S. — Katzenstein, P. J. — Graziano. L. (eds) (1978): Territorial Politics and Industrial Relations . London: Praeger Publishers.

    '', in Territorial Politics and Industrial Relations , (1978 ) -.

  • Van Bruinessen, M. (2000): Transnational Aspects of the Kurdish Question . Florence: RSCAS.

    Bruinessen M. , '', in Transnational Aspects of the Kurdish Question , (2000 ) -.

  • Wallace, H. (1996): Politics and policy in the EU: The challenge of governance. In: Wallace, H. — Wallace, W. (eds): Policy-Making in the European Union . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3–36.

    Wallace H. , '', in Policy-Making in the European Union , (1996 ) -.

  • Weiler, J. (1994): A quiet revolution: The European Court of Justice and its interlocutors. Comparative Political Studies , 26(4): 510–534.

    Weiler J. , 'A quiet revolution: The European Court of Justice and its interlocutors ' (1994 ) 26 Comparative Political Studies : 510 -534.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wessels, W. (1990): Administrative interaction. In: Wallace, W. (ed.): The Dynamics of European Integration . London: Royal Institute of International Affairs.

    Wessels W. , '', in The Dynamics of European Integration , (1990 ) -.

  • Yeçen, M. (2004): Citizenship and ethnicity in Turkey. Middle Eastern Studies , 40(6): 51–66.

    Yeçen M. , 'Citizenship and ethnicity in Turkey ' (2004 ) 40 Middle Eastern Studies : 51 -66.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zurn, M. (2002a): Societal de-nationalisation and positive governance. In: Ougard, M. — Higgot, R. (eds): Towards a Global Polity . London: Routledge, 78–103.

    Zurn M. , '', in Towards a Global Polity , (2002 ) -.

  • Zurn, M. (2002b): Democratic governance beyond the nation-state: The EU and other international institutions. European Journal of International Relations , 6(2): 183–221.

    Zurn M. , 'Democratic governance beyond the nation-state: The EU and other international institutions ' (2002 ) 6 European Journal of International Relations : 183 -221.

    • Search Google Scholar