View More View Less
  • 1 Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  • 2 Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
Restricted access

The recent electoral success of far-right and far-left parties is often considered to be a side-effect of the economic crisis. This article aims to determine the degree to which the downturn in economic performance helped to increase the vote share of these parties. The research includes a set of 23 EU member states from the period 1995 to 2012, and finds that poor economic performance significantly determined the vote share of the far-left. Among the indicators influencing the far-left electorate were mainly changes in the GDP and unemployment rate. The research does not find any correlation between the far-rights vote share and the development of macroeconomic indicators.

  • Altindag, D. T.Mocan, N. H. (2010): Joblessness and Perceptions about the Effectiveness of Democracy. NBER Working Paper No. 15994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arzheimer, K. (2009): Contextual Factors and the Extreme Right Vote in Western Europe, 1980-2002. American Journal of Political Science 53(2): 259275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arzheimer, K.Carter, E. (2006): Political Opportunity Structures and Right-Wing Extremist Party Success. European Journal of Political Research 45(3): 419443.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Backes, U.Moreau, P. (2008): Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht.

  • Bartels, L. M. (2011): Ideology and Retrospection in Electoral Responses to the Great Recession. Available from: http://www.princeton.edu/~bartels/stimulus.pdf, accessed 31 August 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Betz, H. G. (1993): The New Politics of Resentment: Radical Right-Wing Populist Parties in Western Europe. Comparative Politics 25(4): 413427.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boeri, T. (2010): Immigration to the Land of Redistribution. Economica 77(308): 651687.

  • Brückner, M.Grüner, H. P. (2010): Economic Growth and the Rise of Political Extremism: Theory and Evidence. Available from: http://gruener.vwl.uni-mannheim.de/fileadmin/user_upload/ gruener/pdf/growth-extremism_April_23.pdf, accessed 31 August 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caiani, M.Della Porta, D.Wagemann, C. (2012): Mobilizing on the Extreme Right: Germany, Italy and the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canovan, M. (1999): Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy. Political Studies 47(1): 216.

  • Carter, E. (2005): The Extreme Right in Western Europe. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

  • Carter, E. L. (2011): Proportional Representation and the Fortunes of Right-Wing Extremist Parties. West European Politics 25(3): 125146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coffé, H.Heyndels, B.Vermeir, J. (2007): Fertile Grounds for Extreme Right-Wing Parties: Explaining the Vlaams Blok’s Electoral Success. Electoral Studies 26(1): 142155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Curry, J. L.Urban, J. B. (eds.) (2003): The Left Transformed in Post-Communist Societies. Lanham (Md.): Rowman & Littlefield.

  • De Bromhead, A.Eichengreen, B.O’Rourke, K. H. (2012): Right-Wing Political Extremism in the Great Depression. NBER Working Paper No. 17871.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doležalová, J.Havlík, V.Vejvodová, P. (2014): Database of Political Parties. Brno: ESF MU.

  • Downs, A. (1957): An Economic Theory of Democracy. Boston: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

  • Drazen, A. (2002): Political Economy in Macroeconomics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Dülmer, H.Klein, M. (2005): Extreme Right-Wing Voting in Germany in a Multilevel Perspective: A rejoinder to Lubbers and Scheepers. European Journal of Political Research 44(2): 243263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunphy, R.Bale, T. (2011): The Radical Left in Coalition Government: Towards a Comparative Measurement of Success and Failure. Party Politics 17(4): 488504.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekberg, J. (1999): Immigration and the Public Sector: Income effects for the Native Population in Sweden. Journal of Population Economics 12: 411430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (2013): Economic Research and Data. Available from: http://www.ebrd.com/pages/research/economics.shtml, accessed 31 August 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Election Database (2014). Available from: http://eed.nsd.uib.no/webview, accessed 31 August 2016.

  • Eurostat (2014): Statistic Database. Available from: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/ portal/statistics/search_database, accessed 31 August 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Givens, T. E. (2005): Voting Radical Right in Western Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Golder, M. (2003): Explaining Variation in The Success of Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe. Comparative Political Studies 36(4): 432466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guiat, C. (2003): The French and Italian Communist Parties: Comrades and Culture. London: Frank Cass.

  • Hainsworth, P. (2008): The Extreme Right in Western Europe. Abingdon: Routledge.

  • Havlík, V.Pinková, A. (2012): Seeking a Theoretical Framework: How to Define and Identify Populist Parties? In: Havlík, V. (ed) Populist Political Parties in East-Central Europe. Brno: Munipress.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hawkins, K.Riding, S.Mudde, C. (2012): Measuring Populist Attitudes. Available from: http:// www.concepts-methods.org/WorkingPapers/PDF/1087, accessed 31 August 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heitmeyer, W. (2003): The International Handbook of Violence Research. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  • Hernández, E.Kriesi, H. (2015): The Electoral Consequences of the Financial and Economic Crisis in Europe. Available from: http://www.eui.eu/Projects/POLCON/Documents/HernandezandKriesi2014. pdf, accessed 31 August 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ignazi, P. (2003): Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • IMF (2014): World Economic Outlook. Available from: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2013/02/weodata/index.aspx, accessed 31 August 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jackman, R. W.Volpert, K. (1996): Conditions Favouring Parties of the Extreme Right in Western Europe. British Journal of Political Science 26(4): 501521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keech, W. (1995): Economic Politics: The Cost of Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Key, V. O. (1966): The Responsible Electorate. New York: Vintage Books.

  • Kitschelt, H.McGann, A. J. (2005): The Radical Right in Western Europe. A Comparative Analysis. Ann Arbor: The University Michigan Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindvall, J. (2014): The Electoral Consequences of Two Great Crises. European Journal of Political Research 53(4): 747765.

  • Lubbers, M.Gijsberts, M.Scheepers, P. (2002): Extreme Right-Wing Voting in Western Europe. European Journal of Political Research 41(3): 345378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mair, P. (2013): Ruling the Void: The Hollowing of Western Democracy. London: Verso.

  • March, L. (2011): Radical Left Parties in Europe. New York: Routledge.

  • Mudde, C. (1996): The War of Words Defining the Extreme Right Party Family. West European Politics 19(2): 225248.

  • Mudde, C. (2004): The Populist Zeitgest. Government and Opposition 39(4): 542563.

  • Mudde, C. (2007): Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Mueller, D. C. (2003): Public Choice III. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Nohlen, D.Stöver, P. (2010): Elections in Europe. A Data Handbook. Baden-Baden: Nohos Verlagsgesellschaft.

  • Norris, P. (2005): Radical Right. Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • OECD (2014): OECD StatExtracts. Available from: http://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx?, accessed 31 August 2016.

  • Olsen, J. et al. (2010): Left Parties in National Governments. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

  • Rooduijn, M. (2013): The Nucleus of Populism: In Search of the Lowest Common Denominator. Government and Opposition 49(4): 573599.

  • Rydgren, J. (2002): Radical Right Populism in Sweden: Still a Failure, But for How Long? Scandinavian Political Studies 25(1): 2756.

  • Rydgren, J. (2003): Meso-level Reasons for Racism and Xenophobia. Some Converging and Diverging Effects of Radical Right Populism in France and Sweden. European Journal of Social Theory 6(1): 4568.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stanley, B. (2008): The Thin Ideology of Populism. Journal of Political Ideologies 13(1): 95110.

  • Stavrakakis, Y.Katsambekis, G. (2014): Left-Wing Populism in the European Periphery: The Case of SYRIZA. Journal of Political Ideologies 19(2): 119142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swank, D.Betz, H. G. (2003): Globalization, the Welfare State and Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe. Socio-Economic Review 1(2): 215245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tavits, M. (2005): The Development of Stable Party Support: Electoral Dynamics in Post-Communist Europe. Journal of Political Science 49(2): 283298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation