View More View Less
  • 1 Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary
Restricted access

The paper analyzes European Union – Middle East and North Africa (EU-MENA) relations from the perspective of complex interdependencies. As a theoretical framework, it outlines the application of Barry Buzan’s Security Complex Theory on the Euro-Mediterranean (or EU-MENA) region-pair. This involves the provision of a general overview on the several sectors of interdependence between the two regions, namely the military, political, economic, societal and environmental sectors. The paper then turns towards the deeper elaboration of the economic sector and identifies it as the most potent sector for European activism, where the Union could work most effectively on building a long-term solution for the stabilization of the MENA. As conclusions, the paper argues for a deeper economic integration between the two regions, which would provide opportunities for the MENA’s population to be economically successful “at home”, therefore reducing not only the highly visible migration pressure on the EU, but also other security threats such as civil wars, organized crime and weapon proliferation.

  • Amoroso, B. (1998): On Globalization, Capitalism in the 21st Century. New York: Palgrave.

  • Balzacq, T. (2009): The External Dimension of EU Justice and Home Affairs: Governance, Neighbours, Security. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

  • Boening, A. B. (2008): Vortex of a Regional Security Complex: The EuroMed Partnership and Its Security Significance. Miami European Union Center of Excellence EUMA Paper.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buzan, B. (1993): The Logic of Anarchy: Neorealism to Structural Realism. New York: Columbia University Press.

  • Buzan, B.Waever, O.De Wilde, J. (1998): Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

  • Buzan, B.Waever, O. (2003): Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Council of the European Union (2006): The European Union’s Strategic Partnership with the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Interim Report. Brussels: Council of the European Union.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Council of the European Union (2007): General Affairs and External Relations Council Conclusions on Strengthening the European Neighbourhood Policy. Interim Report. Brussels: Council of the European Union.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Council of the European Union (2015): Council Conclusions on the Review of the European Neighbourhood Policy. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/hu/press/press-releases/2015/12/14-conclusions- european-neighbourhood, accessed 17/04/2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Damro, C. (2012): Market Power Europe. Journal of European Public Policy 19(5): 682699.

  • Damro, C. (2015): Market Power Europe: Exploring a Dynamic Conceptual Framework. Journal of European Public Policy 22(9): 13361354.

  • Del Sarto, R. A. (2006): Contested State Identities and Regional Security in the Euro-Mediterranean Area. New York: Palgrave.

  • Excribano, G.Lorca, A. (2008): The Mediterranean Union: A Union in Search of a Project. Real Institute Elcano Working Paper 3/2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Commission (2003): Wider Europe – Neighbourhood: Proposed New Framework for Relations with the EU’s Eastern and Southern Neighbours. EC Communication. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-03-358_en.doc, accessed 17/06/2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Commission (2006): Non – Paper: Expanding on the Proposals Contained in the Communication to the European Parliament and the Council on Strengthening the ENP. EC Communication. http://euromed-justice.eu/document/eu-2006-non-paper-expanding-proposal-containedcommunication- european-parliament-and, accessed 12/06/2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Commission (2011a): A Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean. EC Communication. http://eeas.europa.eu/euromed/docs/com2011_200_en.pdf, accessed 11/04/2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Commission (2011b): A New Response to a Changing Neighbourhood. EC Communication. http://ec.europa.eu/world/enp/pdf/com_11_303_en.pdf, accessed 11/04/2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Commission (2011c): Support for Partnership, Reforms and Inclusive Growth (Spring). EC Communication. http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/documents/aap/2011/af_aap-spe_2011_enpi-s.pdf, accessed 11/04/2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • European Commission (2013): EU’s Response to the Arab Spring: State-of-Play after Two Years. EC Communication. http://www.eu-un.europa.eu/articles/es/article_13134_es.htm, accessed 11/04/2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malik, A.Awadallah, B. (2011): The Economics of the Arab Spring. CSAE Working Paper WPS/201123.

  • Manners, I. (2002): Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms? Journal of Common Market Studies 40(2) 235258.

  • Marchetti, A. (2009): The European Neighbourhood Policy: Foreign Policy at the EU’s Periphery. University of Bonn ZEI Discussion Paper C158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • N. Rózsa, E. (2010): From Barcelona to the Union for the Mediterranean – Northern and Southern Shore Dimensions of the Partnership. HIIA Papers T-2010 (9)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • N. Rózsa, E. (2012): Demography, Migration, Urbanization – the “Politics-Free Processes” of Globalization. Külügyi Szemle 2012 (1): 7285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saif, I. (2011): Even with Arab Economies, Spring is Increasingly Visible. The Daily Star Lebanon, 19 December.

  • Sapir, A.Zachman, G. (2012): A European Mediterranean Economic Area to Kick-Start Economic Development. Egmont Papers No. 54.

  • Schmid, D. (2003): Interlinkages within the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership - Linking Economic, Institutional and Political Reform: Conditionality within the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. EuroMeSCo Papers 27.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schumacher, T. (2004): Survival of the Fittest: The First five Years of Euro-Mediterranean Economic Relations. European University Institute Working Paper RSCAS No. 2004/13

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Toje, A. (2008): The Consensus – Expectations Gap: Explaining Europe’s Ineffective Foreign Policy. Oslo: Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waltz, K. (1979): Theory of International Politics. Waveland Press