View More View Less
  • 1 Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary Coordinator, Social Theory Research Group, Institute of Political History,, Budapest, Hungary
Restricted access

According to Cas Mudde, we live in a “populist Zeitgeist”. The paper argues that not just the 21st, but also the 20th century is about populism. In the first section I elaborate the theoretical background of populism, which is claimed to be a never-ending phenomenon: here, various notions of populism are analysed; I investigate the relationship between democracy and populism; and I refer to the biopolitical framework of populism (called biopopulism) as well. This theoretical framework will be used to analyse Communist populism in Hungary. I elaborate the populism of the Horthyera (1920-1944) in the context of Communist populism. Then I analyse the case of Communist populism in Hungary (1948-1989) according to the following aspects: in the context of the working class and the bourgeois elite; the biopolitical character of the regime; goulash Communism as populist legitimacy; and the viewpoint of socialist patriotism. The main aspect of Communist populism is summarized at the end of the third section, and I briefly refer to the afterlife of Communist populism as a nostalgic phenomenon. The regimes analysed in this study aimed to govern the entire life of the citizens, which is why biopopulism is a useful analytical concept. The biopopulist framework shows that the investigation of the historical backgrounds of populism is necessary to understand contemporary populist tendencies.

  • Abts, K.Rummens, S. (2007): Populism versus Democracy. Political Studies 55(2): 405424.

  • Agamben, G. (1998): Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Translated by Heller-Roazen, D. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

  • Agamben, G. (2000): Means without End: Notes on Politics. Minneapolis, MI: University of Minnesota Press.

  • Agamben, G. (2005): State of Exception. Translated by Attell, K. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

  • Agamben, G. (2014): From the State of Control to a Praxis of Destituent Power. ROAR Magazine February 4.

  • Antal, A. (2017): The Political Theories, Preconditions and Dangers of the Governing Populism in Hungary. Czech Journal of Political Science 24(1): 520.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balassa, B. (1970): The Economic Reform in Hungary. Economica, New Series 37(145): 122.

  • Benczes, I. (2016): From Goulash Communism to Goulash Populism: The Unwanted Legacy of Hungarian Reform Socialism. Post-Communist Economies 28(2): 146166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brubaker, R. (2009): Rethinking Nationhood: Nation as Institutionalized Form, Practical Category, Contingent Even. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canovan, M. (2002): Taking Politics to the People: Populism as the Ideology of Democracy. In: Mény, Y.Surel, Y. (eds.): Democracies and the Populist Challenge. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp: 2544.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, C. (2007): The Prospects for Liberal Nationalism in Post-Leninist States. University Park, Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De la Torre, C. (2000): Populist Seduction in Latin America. Athens, GA: Ohio University Press.

  • Enyedi, Z. (2016): Paternalist Populism and Illiberal Elitism in Central Europe. Journal of Political Ideologies 21(1): 925.

  • Foucault, M. (1990): The History of Sexuality, Volume 1: An Introduction. Translated by Hurley, R. London: Penguin.

  • Foucault, M. (2003): “Society Must Be Defended”, Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975-76. Translated by Macey, D. London: Penguin.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greskovits, B. (1998): The Political Economy of Protest and Patience: East European and Latin American Transformations Compared. Budapest: Central European University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaltwasser, C. R. (2012): The Ambivalence of Populism: Threat and Corrective for Democracy. Democratization 19(2): 184208.

  • Kazin, M. (1995): The Populist Persuasion. An American History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

  • Laclau, E. (2005a): Populism: What’s in a Name? In: Panizza, F. (ed.): Populism and the Mirror of Democracy. London: Verso, pp. 3249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laclau, E. (2005b): On Populist Reason. London: Verso.

  • Lambert, S. (s. a.): The Horthy Era (1920–1944). The Orange Files. https://theorangefiles.hu/thehorthy-era-1920-1944-long/, accessed 31/01/2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lehotay, V. (2012): Measures of Deprivation of Freedom in the Horthy-Era, with Special Regard to anti-Jewish Laws. Doctoral Thesis, University of Miskolc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemke, T. (2011): Biopolitics: An Advanced Introduction. New York, London: New York University Press.

  • Lijphart, A. (1999): Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven, London: Yale University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • March, L. (2011): Radical Left Parties in Europe. New York: Routledge.

  • Mény, Y.Surel, Y., eds (2002): Democracies and the Populist Challenge. New York: Palgrave.

  • Moffitt, B.Tormey, S. (2014): Rethinking Populism: Politics, Mediatisation and Political Style. Political Studies 62(2): 381397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mouffe, C. (2000): The Democratic Paradox. London: Verso.

  • MSZMP (1956): Az MSZMP Ideiglenes Központi Bizottságának határozata. 1956. december 5. [The Decision of the Temporary Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party, 5 December 1956]. http://mek.oszk.hu/01900/01937/html/szerviz/dokument/msmphats.htm, accessed 22/09/2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mudde, C. (2004): The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition 39(4): 541563.

  • Mudde, C. (2007): Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

  • Müller, J. W. (2016): What is Populism? Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

  • O’Donoghue, A. (2015): Sovereign Exception: Notes on the Thought of Giorgio Agamben. Critical Legal Thinking 2 July.

  • Panayotu, P. (2017): Towards a Transnational Populism: A Chance for European Democracy (?) The Case of DiEM25. POPULISMUS Working Papers (5).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panizza, F. (2005): Populism and the Mirror of Democracy. London: Verso.

  • Pap, M. (2013): “A nép és a szülőföld igaz szeretete”. A szocialista hazafiság fogalma a Kádár-rendszerben [“The True Love of the People and the Homeland”. The Concept of Socialist Patriotism in the Kádár System]. Politikatudományi Szemle 22(1): 6883.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pappas, T. S. (2014): Populist Democracies: Post-Authoritarian Greece and Post-Communist Hungary. Government and Opposition 49(1): 123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pappas, T. S. (2015): Modern Populism: Research Advances, Conceptual and Methodological Pitfalls, and the Minimal Definition. Oxford Research Encyclopaedias. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pew Research Center (2009): End of Communism Cheered but Now with More Reservations. http://www.pewglobal.org/2009/11/02/end-of-communism-cheered-but-now-with-morereservations /, accessed 31/01/2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rainer, J. M.Somlai, K. (2007): The 1956 Hungarian Revolution and the Soviet Bloc Countries: Reactions and Repercussions. Budapest: The Institute for the History of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, Historical Archives of the Hungarian State Security.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Romsics, I. (1999): Hungary in the Twentieth Century. Budapest: Corvina.

  • Tőkés, R. L. (1996): Hungary’s Negotiated Revolution: Economic Reform, Social Change and Political Succession. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weyland, K. (2001): Clarifying a Contested Concept: Populism in the Study of Latin American Politics. Comparative Politics 34(1): 122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wike, R. (2010): Hungary Dissatisfied with Democracy, but Not Its Ideals. Pew Research Center, Pew Global Attitudes Project. 7 April. http://www.pewglobal.org/2010/04/07/hungarydissatisfied-with-democracy-but-not-its-ideals/, accessed 31/01/2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation