View More View Less
  • * Institute of Law Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, agata.kleczkowska@inp.pan.pl. The research for this article was supported by a grant from the National Science Centre (Poland) awarded for the research project ‘Liability for crimes committed by armed non-state actors - domestic and international perspective‘ (UMO-2016/23/N/HS5/02849).
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $576.00

Abstract

This paper suggests that the crime of terrorism requires the establishment of an international organ to prosecute the perpetrators of the crime and there is a need to enable the prosecution of the crime of terrorism as a specific new type of international crime. In advancing this thesis, the paper is divided into three parts. The first part briefly defines the notion of terrorism, while the second discusses the international legal instruments and practices when it comes to prosecution of the crime of terrorism. It starts with the first failed attempts to define and prosecute the crime of terrorism. Next, it discusses the jurisdiction of different international courts and tribunals over the crime of terrorism. The third part presents the specific case of the Polish domestic legislation regulating the crime of terrorism in order to demonstrate that States which so far have not been affected in a major way by terrorism may have little experience in creating comprehensive legislation, yet they still may have to deal with perpetrators of the crime. This is why both a comprehensive legal instrument and an international organ with jurisdiction over the crime of terrorism are necessary.

  • Ambos, Kai, ‘Judicial Creativity at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Is There a Crime of Terrorism under International Law‘ (2011) 3 Leiden Journal of International Law 655-675.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bassiouni, M. Cherif, ‘Historical Survey: 1919-1998‘ in Bassiouni, M. Cherif (ed), International Criminal Law , vol 3 (2nd edn, Transnational Publishers, Inc. 1999) 597-634.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bassiouni, M. Cherif, ‘Legal Control of International Terrorism: A Policy Oriented Assessment‘ (2002) 43 (1) Harvard International Law Journal 83-103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broomhall, Bruce, ‘Article 22‘ in Triffterer, Otto (ed), Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court - Observers‘ Notes, Article by Article (2nd edn, CH Beck 2008) 713-29.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassese, Antonio, ‘Terrorism is Also Disrupting Some Crucial Legal Categories of International Law‘ (2001) 5 European Journal of International Law 993-1001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, Roger S., ‘Article 121‘ in Triffterer, Otto (ed), Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court - Observers‘ Notes, Article by Article (2nd edn, CH Beck 2008) 1751-57.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, Aviv, ‘Prosecuting Terrorists at the International Criminal Court: Reevaluating an Unused Legal Tool to Combat Terrorism‘ (2012) 2 Michigan State International Law Review 219-257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corrales Hoyos , Mateo, ‘Including the Crime of Terrorism Within the Rome Statute: Likelihood and Prospects‘ (2017) 1 Global Politics Review 25-38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cryer, Robert, Friman, Hakan, Robinson, Darryl and Wilmshurst, Elizabeth, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (CUP 2010).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dixon , Rodney (Revised by Christopher Hall), ‘Analysis and interpretation of elements: Paragraph I: List of crimes: Chapeau‘ in ‘Article 7‘ in Triffterer, Otto (ed), Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court - Observers‘ Notes, Article by Article (2nd edn, CH Beck 2008) 168-83.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dörmann, Knut, ‘Paragraph 2: Meaning of "War Crimes"‘ in ‘Article 8‘ in Triffterer, Otto (ed), Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court - Observers‘ Notes, Article by Article (2nd edn, CH Beck 2008) 300-22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferencz, Benjamin B., An International Criminal Court - A Step Toward World Peace. A Documentary History and Analysis , vol 1 (Oceana Publications, Inc. 1980).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, Christopher K., ‘Introduction/General Remarks‘ in ‘Article 7‘ in Triffterer, Otto (ed), Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court - Observers‘ Notes, Article by Article (2nd edn, CH Beck 2008) 166-67.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoc, Stanisław, ‘Artykuł 141‘ [Article 141] in Filar, Marian (ed), Kodeks karny. Komentarz [Criminal Code. A Commentary] (Wolters Kluwer Polska 2014) 910-916.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Junod, Sylvie-So, Commentary on the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II) (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1987).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalitowski, Michał, Artykuł 258 [Article 258] in Filar, Marian (ed), Kodeks karny. Komentarz [Criminal Code. A Commentary] (Wolters Kluwer Polska 2014) 1447-1450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiziński , Miłosz, ‘Wybrane aspekty prawnokarne słuzby obywatela polskiego w obcym wojsku lub w obcej organizacji wojskowej (art. 141 § 1 i 3 k.k.)‘ [Some criminal law aspects of the service of the Polish national in foreign army of military organization (art. 141 §1 and 3 of the Criminal Code] 2006 (1) Wojskowy Przegląd Prawniczy 37-43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nowak, Celina, ‘The internationalization of the Polish criminal law: how the Polish criminal law changed under the influence of globalization‘ (2013) 2 Crime, Law and Social Change 139-156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pellet, Alain, ‘Non, ce n‘est pas la guerre‘ (21 Septembre 2001) Le Monde 12.

  • Saul, Ben, ‘Legislating from a Radical Hague: The United Nations Special Tribunal for Lebanon Invents an International Crime of Transnational Terrorism‘ (2011) 3 Leiden Journal of International Law 677-700.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schabas, William A., ‘Is Terrorism a Crime Against Humanity?‘ (2004) 8 (1) Journal of International Peacekeeping 255-261.

  • Schrijver, Nico, ‘Responding to International Terrorism: Moving the Frontiers of International Law for "Enduring Freedom"?‘ (2001) 3 Netherlands International Law Review 271-291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sońta , Cezariusz, ‘Przestępstwo o charakterze terrorystycznym w prawie polskim‘ [Terrorist offence under Polish law] (2005) 4 Wojskowy Przegląd Prawniczy 3-25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van den Herik , Larissa, ‘The decline of customary international law as a source of international criminal law‘ (2014) Grotius Centre Working Paper 038-ICL 1-18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van der Vyver , Johan David, ‘Prosecuting Terrorism in International Tribunals‘ (2010) 24 Emory International Law Review 527-547.

  • Ventura, Manuel J., ‘Terrorism According to the STL‘s Interlocutory Decision on the Applicable Law: A Defining Moment or a Moment of Defining‘ (2011) 5 Journal of International Criminal Justice 1021-1042.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiak , Krzysztof, ‘Artykuł 115‘ [Article 115] in Grześkowiak, Alicja and Wiak, Krzysztof (eds), Kodeks karny. Komentarz [Criminal Code. A Commentary] (CH Beck 2015) 713-769.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zgorzały, Robert, ‘Przestępstwo o charakterze terrorystycznym w polskim prawie karnym‘ [Terrorist offence under Polish criminal law] 2007 (7-8) Prokuratura i Prawo 58-79.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zimmermann , Andreas, ‘Article 5‘ in Triffterer, Otto (ed), Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court - Observers‘ Notes, Article by Article (2nd edn, CH Beck 2008) 129-42.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation