View More View Less
  • 1 ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary
  • 2 ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $25.00

1 year subscription (Individual Only)

USD  $752.00

Body sensations play an essential role in the subjective evaluation of our physical health, illness, and healing. They are impacted by peripheral somatic and external processes, but they are also heavily modulated by mental processes, e.g., attention, motor control, and emotion. Body sensations, such as tingling, numbness, pulse, and warmth, can emerge due to simply focusing attention on a body part. It is however an open question, if these sensations are connected with actual peripheral changes or happen “only in the mind.” Here, we first tested whether the intensity of such attention-related body sensations is related to autonomic and somatomotor physiological processes and to psychological traits. In this study, attention-related body sensations were not significantly connected to changes in physiology, except warmth sensation, which was linked to decrease in muscle tension. Overall intensity of tingling significantly correlated with body awareness and tendentiously with body–mind practice. This strengthened the hypothesis that attention-related body sensations are more the result of top–down functions, and the connection with peripheral processes is weak. Here, we suggested a novel protocol to examine the effect of manipulating attention on body sensations, which together with our results and discussion can inspire future researches.

  • 1.

    Barefoot JC , Straub RB : Opportunity for information search and the effect of false heart-rate feedback. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 17(2), 154157 (1971)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Barratt EL , Davis NJ : Autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR): a flow-like mental state. Peer J. 3, e851 (2015)

  • 3.

    Barsky AJ : The paradox of health. N. Engl. J. Med. 318(7), 414418 (1988)

  • 4.

    Barsky AJ : Amplification, somatization, and the somatoform disorders. Psychosomatics 33(1), 2834 (1992)

  • 5.

    Barsky AJ , Wyshak G , Klerman GL : The somatosensory amplification scale and its relationship to hypochondriasis. J. Psychiatr. Res. 24(4), 323334 (1990)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Bauer CC , Barrios FA , Díaz JL : Subjective somatosensory experiences disclosed by focused attention: cortical-hippocampal-insular and amygdala contributions. PLoS One 9(8), e104721 (2014)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Bauer CC , Díaz JL , Concha L , Barrios FA : Sustained attention to spontaneous thumb sensations activates brain somatosensory and other proprioceptive areas. Brain Cogn. 87, 8696 (2014)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Beaudoin R , Michael GA : Gating of spontaneous somatic sensations by movement. Somatosens. Mot. Res. 31(3), 111121 (2014)

  • 9.

    Bechara A , Damasio AR : The somatic marker hypothesis: a neural theory of economic decision. Games Econ. Behav. 52(2), 336372 (2005)

  • 10.

    Beissner F , Brünner F , Fink M , Meissner K , Kaptchuk TJ , Napadow V : Placebo-induced somatic sensations: a multi-modal study of three different placebo interventions. PLoS One 10(4), e0124808 (2015)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Beissner F , Marzolff I : Investigation of acupuncture sensation patterns under sensory deprivation using a geographic information system. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2012, e591304 (2012)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Borg C , Emond FC , Colson D , Laurent B , Michael GA : Attentional focus on subjective interoceptive experience in patients with fibromyalgia. Brain Cogn. 101, 3543 (2015)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Botto RW , Galbraith GG , Stern RM : Effects of false heart rate feedback and sex-guilt upon attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Psychol. Rep. 35(1), 267274 (1974)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Busch V , Zeman F , Heckel A , Menne F , Ellrich J , Eichhammer P : The effect of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on pain perception – an experimental study. Brain Stimul. 6(2), 202209 (2013)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Buss AH (1980): Self-consciousness and Social Anxiety. W. H. Freeman & Co Ltd., San Francisco–Washington–London

  • 16.

    Carver CS , Blaney PH : Avoidance behavior and perceived arousal. Motiv. Emot. 1(1), 6173 (1977)

  • 17.

    Carver CS , Blaney PH : Perceived arousal, focus of attention, and avoidance behavior. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 86(2), 154162 (1977)

  • 18.

    Carver CS , Scheier MF (1981): Attention and Self-regulation: A Control-theory Approach to Human Behavior. Springer, New York

  • 19.

    Conover WJ (1999): Cochran’s test for related observations. In: Practical Nonparametric Statistics (3rd ed.), ed Conover WJ, Wiley, New York, pp. 250257

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Craig AD : How do you feel? Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3(8), 655666 (2002)

  • 21.

    Edwards MJ , Adams RA , Brown H , Pareés I , Friston KJ : A Bayesian account of “hysteria”. Brain 135(Pt . 11), 34953512 (2012)

  • 22.

    Farb NAS , Daubenmier J , Price CJ , Gard T , Kerr C , Dunn BD , Klein AC , Paulus MP , Mehling WE : Interoception, contemplative practice, and health. Front. Psychol. 6, 763 (2015)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Fogel A (2013): Body Sense: The Science and Practice of Embodied Self-awareness (1st ed.), W. W. Norton & Company, New York

  • 24.

    Gibbons FX (1990): Self-attention and behavior: a review and theoretical update. In: Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, ed Zanna MP, Academic Press, New York, pp. 249303

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Gray MA , Harrison NA , Wiens S , Critchley HD : Modulation of emotional appraisal by false physiological feedback during fMRI. PLoS One 2(6), e546 (2007)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Haenen AJM , Schmidt AJM , Schoenmakers M , van den Hout MA : Suggestibility in hypochondriacal patients and healthy control subjects. An experimental case-control study. Psychosomatics 38(6), 543547 (1997)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Irvine E : Signal detection theory, the exclusion failure paradigm and weak consciousness—evidence for the access/phenomenal distinction? Conscious. Cogn. 18(2), 551560 (2009)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Johnson JM , Minson CT , Kellogg DL : Cutaneous vasodilator and vasoconstrictor mechanisms in temperature regulation. Compr. Physiol. 4(1), 3389 (2014)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Kashkouli Nejad K , Sugiura M , Thyreau B , Nozawa T , Kotozaki Y , Furusawa Y , Nishino K , Nukiwa T , Kawashima R : Spinal fMRI of interoceptive attention/awareness in experts and novices. Neural Plast. 2014, 679509 (2014)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Köteles F , Simor P , Tolnai N : A Testi Abszorpció Skála magyar változatának pszichometriai értékelése [Psychometric evaluation of the Hungarian version of the Somatic Absorption Scale]. Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika 13(4), 375395 (2012)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Köteles F , Szemerszky R , Gubányi M , Körmendi J , Szekrényesi C , Lloyd R , Molnár L , Drozdovszky O , Bárdos G : Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) and electrosensibility (ES) – are they connected? Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 216(3), 362370 (2013)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Leventhal H , Brown D , Shacham S , Engquist G : Effects of preparatory information about sensations, threat of pain, and attention on cold pressor distress. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 37(5), 688714 (1979)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Leventhal H , Meyer D , Nerenz D (1980): The common sense representation of illness danger. In: Medical Psychology, ed Rachman S, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 730

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Martínez-Martínez L-A , Mora T , Vargas A , Fuentes-Iniestra M , Martínez-Lavín M : Sympathetic nervous system dysfunction in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis: a review of case-control studies. J. Clin. Rheumatol. 20(3), 146150 (2014)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Mechanic D : Social psychologic factors affecting the presentation of bodily complaints. N. Engl. J. Med. 286(21), 11321139 (1972)

  • 36.

    Michael GA , Naveteur J : The tickly homunculus and the origins of spontaneous sensations arising on the hands. Conscious. Cogn. 20(3), 603617 (2011)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Michael GA , Naveteur J , Dupuy MA , Jacquot L : My heart is in my hands: the interoceptive nature of the spontaneous sensations felt on the hands. Physiol. Behav. 143, 113120 (2015)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Mirams L , Poliakoff E , Brown RJ , Lloyd DM : Vision of the body increases interference on the somatic signal detection task. Exp. Brain Res. 202(4), 787794 (2010)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Misovich S , Charis PC : Information need, affect, and cognition of autonomic activity. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 10, 274283 (1974)

  • 40.

    Naveteur J , Dupuy M-A , Gabrielli F , Michael GA : How we perceive our own hands: effects of attention, aging, and sex. Somatosens. Mot. Res. 32(4), 227235 (2015)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Naveteur J , Honore J , Michael GA : How to detect an electrocutaneous shock which is not delivered? Overt spatial attention influences decision. Behav. Brain Res. 165(2), 254261 (2005)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Nelson RJ (2010): The Somatosensory System: Deciphering the Brain’s Own Body Image, CRC Press, Boca Raton–London–New York–Washington, DC

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Nummenmaa L , Glerean E , Hari R , Hietanen JK : Bodily maps of emotions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 111(2), 646651 (2014)

  • 44.

    Parkinson B , Manstead ASR : False autonomic feedback: effects of attention to feedback on ratings of erotic stimuli. Motiv. Emot. 10(1), 1124 (1986)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Pennebaker JW : Stimulus characteristics influencing estimation of heart rate. Psychophysiology 18(5), 540548 (1981)

  • 46.

    Pennebaker JW (1982): The Psychology of Physical Symptoms, Springer, New York

  • 47.

    Pennebaker JW , Skelton JA : Psychological parameters of physical symptoms. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 4(4), 524530 (1978)

  • 48.

    Pennebaker JW , Skelton JA : Selective monitoring of physical sensations. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 41(2), 213223 (1981)

  • 49.

    Peper E , Holt CF (2012): Creating Wholeness: A Self-healing Workbook Using Dynamic Relaxation, Images, and Thoughts, Springer Science & Business Media, New York

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Petersen S , Schroijen M , Mölders C , Zenker S , Van den Bergh O : Categorical interoception: perceptual organization of sensations from inside. Psychol. Sci. 25(5), 10591066 (2014)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Petersen S , Van Staeyen K , Vögele C , von Leupoldt A , Van den Bergh O : Interoception and symptom reporting: disentangling accuracy and bias. Front. Psychol. 6, 732 (2015)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Ruble DN , Brooks-Gunn J : Menstrual symptoms: a social cognition analysis. J. Behav. Med. 2(2), 171194 (1979)

  • 53.

    Saper CB : The central autonomic nervous system: conscious visceral perception and autonomic pattern generation. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 25, 433469 (2002)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Silvia PJ , Gendolla GHE : On introspection and self-perception: does self-focused attention enable accurate self-knowledge? Rev. Gen. Psychol. 5(3), 241269 (2001)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Spanos NP , Liddy SJ , Scott H , Garrard C , Sine J , Tirabasso A , Hayward A : Hypnotic suggestion and placebo for the treatment of chronic headache in a university volunteer sample. Cognit. Ther. Res. 17(2), 191205 (1993)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Svedman P , Ingvar M , Gordh T : “Anxiebo”, placebo, and postoperative pain. BMC Anesthesiol. 5(1), 9 (2005)

  • 57.

    Szemerszky R , Gubányi M , Árvai D , Dömötör Z , Köteles F : Is there a connection between electrosensitivity and electrosensibility? A replication study. Int. J. Behav. Med. 22(6), 755763 (2015)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Szemerszky R , Köteles F , Lihi R , Bárdos G : Polluted places or polluted minds? An experimental sham-exposure study on background psychological factors of symptom formation in “Idiophatic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields”. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 213(5), 387394 (2010)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Takazawa T , MacDermott AB : Synaptic pathways and inhibitory gates in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1198, 153158 (2010)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Tihanyi BT : A zenei bizsergés pszichofiziológiai háttere és terápiás felhasználása [Musical tingling: psychophysiological background and therapeutic use]. Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika 17(1), 1936 (2016)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Tihanyi BT , Ferentzi E , Köteles F : Characteristics of attention related body sensations. Temporal stability, and associations with measures of body focus, affect, sustained attention, and heart rate variability. Somatosens. Mot. Res. (in press)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Valins S : Cognitive effects of false heart-rate feedback. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 4(4), 400408 (1966)

  • 63.

    Verhoeven K , Crombez G , Eccleston C , Van Ryckeghem DML , Morley S , Van Damme S : The role of motivation in distracting attention away from pain: an experimental study. Pain 149(2), 229234 (2010)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Woll SB , McFall ME : The effects of false feedback on attributed arousal and rated attractiveness in female subjects. J. Pers. 47(2), 214229 (1979)

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Yosipovitch G , Greaves MW , Schmelz M : Itch. Lancet 361(9358), 690694 (2003)

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
May 2020 0 6 7
Jun 2020 0 9 6
Jul 2020 5 1 0
Aug 2020 5 0 0
Sep 2020 8 0 0
Oct 2020 22 0 0
Nov 2020 0 0 0