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  • 1 College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia
  • 2 Mansoura University, Egypt
  • 3 Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on oxidative stress and senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) as well as osteopontin (OPN) expression in the hippocampus of rats subjected to vascular dementia (VD). A total of 72 male rats were divided into six groups (n = 12 each) as follows: (i) untreated control (CON), (ii) sham-operated group, (iii) sham-operated + melatonin, (iv) rats exposed to VD induced by permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCCAO) leading to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, (v) rats exposed to VD + melatonin, and (vi) rats exposed to VD + donepezil (DON). At the end of experiment, the hippocampal levels of acetylcholine (ACh), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (Dop) were measured. Expression of OPN was determined using immunohistochemistry, and SMP30 expression was determined using real-time PCR in the hippocampus. Hippocampal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evaluated. The BCCAO group showed significantly decreased TAC (p < 0.05) and significantly increased in TBARS levels compared with the CON group. In addition, BCCAO significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the expression of both OPN and SMP30 and the levels of ACh, NE, and Dop in the hippocampus compared with CON treatment. Treatment with melatonin significantly increased OPN and SMP30 expression and ACh, NE, and Dop levels in the hippocampus with amelioration of the oxidative stress compared with BCCAO rats. Melatonin might produce a neuroprotective effect through its antioxidant action and by increasing the expression of SMP30 and OPN that is not comparable with that of DON.

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