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  • 1 Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, Islamic Republic of Iran
  • | 2 Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran
  • | 3 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Islamic Republic of Iran
  • | 4 Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, USA
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This study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and saffron aqueous extract (SAE) would provide a synergistic effect to improve tumor volume reduction and also modulate pro- and anti-apoptotic protein expression in tumor tissue of 4T1 breast cancer-bearing mice. Female mice following induction of breast cancer through injection of 4T1 cell lines were randomly divided into four groups: (1) HIIT, (2) SAE, (3) HIIT+ SAE, and (4) control. The tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIIT, SAE, and HIIT+SAE groups than in the controls. The protein level of caspase-3 in the HIIT and the SAE groups was higher than in the control and the HIIT+SAE groups. The Bax protein level in the SAE group was higher than in the control. The HIIT+SAE group showed a lower level of Bax than the HIIT and the SAE groups. The protein level of Bcl-2 was higher in the HIIT+SAE vs. both the HIIT and the SAE groups. Finally, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was significantly higher in the HIIT and the SAE groups than in the HIIT+SAE and control groups. These findings indicate that a combination of HIIT and SAE interventions does not improve the apoptotic induction in tumor tissue, while both HIIT and SAE treatments may mediate apoptotic pathway as evinced by the elevated ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3 levels during tumor progression in breast cancer-bearing mice.

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Total Cites 245
Impact Factor
Rank by Physiology 62/81 (Q4)
Impact Factor  
Impact Factor 1,866
Journal Self Cites
5 Year 1,703
Impact Factor
Journal  0,51
Citation Indicator  
Rank by Journal  Physiology 67/84 (Q4)
Citation Indicator   
Citable 42
Total 42
Total 0
Scimago 29
Scimago 0,417
Journal Rank
Scimago Physiology (medical) Q3
Quartile Score  
Scopus 270/1140=1,9
Scite Score  
Scopus Physiology (medical) 71/98 (Q3)
Scite Score Rank  
Scopus 0,528
Days from  172
to acceptance  
Days from  106
to publication  

Total Cites
Impact Factor 1,410
Impact Factor
Journal Self Cites
5 Year
Impact Factor
Article Influence
% Articles
Citable Items
Journal Rank
Scite Score
Scite Score Rank
Physiology (medical) 73/99 (Q3)


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Physiology International
Language English
Size B5
Year of
2006 (1950)
2021 Volume 108
per Year
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Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia
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ISSN 2498-602X (Print)
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