Author:
Cher Leng Lee National University of Singapore

Search for other papers by Cher Leng Lee in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Contemporary Chinese has only one form of first-person pronoun; by contrast, there are at least four different first-person pronominal forms used in Classical Chinese. This makes Classical Chinese first-person pronouns noteworthy to investigate. This co-existence of forms with similar meaning of self-referencing raises two issues, namely the reason behind this co-existence and the relationships among these pronominal forms in terms of sociopragmatic use. Unlike what has been previously argued in the field that address forms rather than pronouns are politeness-related (e.g., Kádár 2007; Pan & Kádár 2011), first-person pronominal forms in Classical Chinese express a diverse set of contextually-situated politeness-related meanings. Furthermore, these pronominal forms are socially indexical, in the sense that they are allocated to speakers depending on their social status. Thus, a central argument of this paper is that the pronominal forms studied reveal information about both the person who uses them and the context in which they are used. The paper compares pronominal forms used in the Lunyu 論語 or The analects of Confucius (475 BC–221 BC) and Shishuo Xinyu 世說新語 (A new account of the tales of the world) (200 AD–400 AD), to understand the pragmatic implications and politeness values of these different first-person pronominal forms over a time-span of 400–600 years and also to provide a glimpse of how eventually only one form came to exist in contemporary Chinese.

  • Lau, Din Cheuk . 2000. The Analects. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.

  • Legge, James . 1991. The Chinese Classics: with a translation, critical and exegetical notes, prolegomena, and copious indexes in five volume, Volume I, Confucius Analects, The Great Learning, The Doctrine of the Mean, third edition. Taipei: SMC Publishing Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liang, Zhangju . 2002. Chengwei Lu [Record of addressing], Qing dynasty, modern edition used for this paper. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.

  • Wilhelm, Richard . 1951. The I Ching or Book of Changes. 2 vols. (English edition, translated by C. F. Baynes). New York: Pantheon Books.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu Zhenghao , Qiu Xieyou, Chen Manming, Xu Tanhui and Huang Junlang. 2015. New translation of Shishuo Xinyu 予《世说新语》新译 [A new account of tales of the world]. Taipei: San Min Book Shop.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mather, Richard Burroughs . 2002. A new account of tales of the world, second edition. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agha, Asif . 2007. Language and social relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Braun, Friederike . 1988. Terms of address: Problems of patterns and usage in various languages and cultures. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, Penelope and Stephen C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Brown, Roger and Albert Gilman. 1960. The pronouns of power and solidarity. In T. A. Sebeok (eds.) Style in language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 253276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elvin, Mark . 1985. Between the earth and heaven: Conceptions of the self in China. In M. Carrithers, S. Collins and S. Lukes (eds.) The category of the person: Anthropology, philosophy, history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 156189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu, Yueguo . 1990. Politeness phenomena in Modern Chinese. Journal of Pragmatics 14. 237257.

  • He, Leshi . 1984. Zuozhuan de renshen 身 daici [Personal pronouns in the Zuozhuan] Gudai hanyu 予 yanjiu lunwenji 2. Beijing: Shekeyuan yuyansuo guhanyu yanjiushi. 108138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • He, Ziran and Wei Ren. 2016. Current address behaviour in China. East Asian Pragmatics 1. 163180.

  • Head, Brian F . 1978. Respect degrees in pronominal reference. In J. H. Greenberg (eds.) Universals of human language. Vol. 3: Word structure. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 151211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Head, Brian F . 1981. Variation and rate of change in the diffusion of new patterns of address. In D. Sankoff and H. Cedergren (eds.) Variation omnibus. Edmonton: Linguistic Research. 489498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Helmbrecht, Johannes . 2005. Politeness distinctions in pronouns. In M. Haspelmath et. al. (eds.) The world atlas of language structures. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 186190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, Beverly . 1985. Politeness in Chinese: Impersonal pronouns and personal greetings. Anthropological Linguistics 27. 204213.

  • Hong, Bo . 1996. Shanggu hanyu 予 diyi rencheng daici ‘yu 予’, ‘wo 我’, ‘zhen 朕’ de fenbie [The difference among Early Chinese first-person pronouns yu 予, wo 我 and zhen 朕]. Yuyan Yanjiu 《语言研究》 1. 8087.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, Shengzhang . 1963. Gudaiyu 予 de renshen 身 daici yanjiu [Personal pronouns in Archaic Chinese]. Zhongguo Yuwen 6. 443372.

  • Huang, Yushun . 2003. Zhongguo chuantong de ‘tazhe’ yishi – gudai hanyu 予 rencheng daici de fenxi [‘Otherness’ in Chinese tradition: An analysis of Archaic Chinese pronouns]. Zhongguo zhexueshi 2. 9198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kádár, Dániel Z . 2007. Terms of (im)politeness: On the communicational properties of traditional Chinese (im)polite terms of address. Budapest: University of Budapest Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kádár, Dániel Z and Michael Haugh. 2013. Understanding politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Kádár, Dániel Z and Yuling Pan. 2012. Chinese ‘face’ and im/politeness: An introduction. Journal of Politeness Research 8. 110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lai, Vicky T. and Zygmunt Frajzyngier. 2009. Change of functions of the first-person pronouns. In M. Dufresne, F. Dupuis and E. Vocai (eds.) Historical Linguistics 2007: Selected papers from the 18th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Montreal, 6–11 August 2007. 223232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, Cher Leng . 2012. Self-presentation, face and first-person pronouns in the Analects. Journal of Politeness Research 8. 7592.

  • Lee, Cher Leng . 2016. Switching number in pronouns as social indices in Dream of the Red Chamber. East Asian Pragmatics 1. 209231.

  • Liu, Yu . 2005. ‘Lunyu 予 zhong ‘shen 身’ ‘ji’ ‘wo 我’ de ziwo 我 daode jiaoyu 予 yiyi [Moral meanings of shen 身, ji, wo 我 in the Analects]. Hengyang shifan xueyuan xuebao 26. 141144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lo, Yuet Keung . 2001. Lunyu 予 zhong de ziwo 我 guannian [The concept of self in the Analects]. Qinghua Journal 11. 375393.

  • Shu-xiang . 1985. Jindai hanyu 予 shidaici [Demonstratives and pronouns in Modern Chinese]. Shanghai: Xuelin Press.

  • Mao, LuMing R . 1996. Chinese first-person and social implicature. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 7. 106128.

  • Pan, Yuling and Dániel Z. Kádár. 2011. Politeness in historical and contemporary Chinese. London: Continuum.

  • Peng, Guoyue . 2000. Kindai Chugokugo no keigo shisutemi [The system of pre-modern Chinese politeness address terms]. Tokyo: Hakuteisha.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pizziconi Barbara and Richard J. Watts. 2013. Pragmatic and metapragmatic issues in Japanese honorific usage. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pulleybank, Edwin G . 1995. Outline of Classical Chinese grammar. Vancover: University of British Columbia Press.

  • Taavitsainen, Irma and Andreas H. Jucker. 2003. Diachronic perspectives on address term systems. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tu, Wei-ming . 1994. Embodying the universe: A note on Confucian self-realization. In R. T. Ames, W. Dissanayake and T. P. Kasulis (eds.) Self as person in Asian theory and practice. Albany: State University of New York Press. 177186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Li (ed.). 2000. 王力古漢語字典 [The Wang Li character dictionary of ancient Chinese]. Peking: Zhonghua Shuju.

  • Wang, Li . 2004. Hanyu 予 shigao [Historical account of Chinese language] Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.

  • Wang, Li (ed.). 2000. 王力古漢語字典 [The Wang Li character dictionary of ancient Chinese]. Peking: Zhonghua Shuju.

  • Wu, Zhongwei . 1999. Lunyu 予 zhong de ziwo 我 guannian tantao [Concepts of self in the Analects]. Xuehai 1. 5660.

  • Yuan, Tingdong . 1994. Guren chengwei mantan [Discussions on archaic forms of address]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.

  • Zeng, Lingxiang . 2005. Shijing lunyu 予 zhong diyi rencheng daici ‘wo 我’ de bijiao [Comparing first-person pronouns in the Book of Odes and Analects] Zaozhuang xueyuan xuebao 22. 8688.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhan, Cheng . 2012. Mediation through personal pronoun shifts in dialogue interpreting of political meetings. Interpreting 4. 192216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhuang, Zhen . 1984. Shishuo xinyu 予 zhong de rencheng daici [Pronouns in A New Account of the Tales of the World]. Fujian shifan daxue xuebao 4. 7782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collapse
  • Expand

The author instruction is available in PDF.
Please, download the file from HERE

Editors

Editor-in-Chief: András Cser

Editor: György Rákosi

Review Editor: Tamás Halm

Editorial Board

  • Anne Abeillé / Université Paris Diderot
  • Željko Bošković / University of Connecticut
  • Marcel den Dikken / Eötvös Loránd University; Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • Hans-Martin Gärtner / Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • Elly van Gelderen / Arizona State University
  • Anders Holmberg / Newcastle University
  • Katarzyna Jaszczolt / University of Cambridge
  • Dániel Z. Kádár / Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • István Kenesei / University of Szeged; Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • Anikó Lipták / Leiden University
  • Katalin Mády / Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • Gereon Müller / Leipzig University
  • Csaba Pléh / Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Central European University
  • Giampaolo Salvi / Eötvös Loránd University
  • Irina Sekerina / College of Staten Island CUNY
  • Péter Siptár / Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics, Budapest
  • Gregory Stump / University of Kentucky
  • Peter Svenonius / University of Tromsø
  • Anne Tamm / Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church
  • Akira Watanabe / University of Tokyo
  • Jeroen van de Weijer / Shenzhen University

 

Acta Linguistica Academica
Address: Benczúr u. 33. HU–1068 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: (+36 1) 351 0413; (+36 1) 321 4830 ext. 154
Fax: (36 1) 322 9297
E-mail: ala@nytud.mta.hu

Indexing and Abstracting Services:

  • Arts and Humanities Citation Index
  • Bibliographie Linguistique/Linguistic Bibliography
  • International Bibliographies IBZ and IBR
  • Linguistics Abstracts
  • Linguistics and Language Behaviour Abstracts
  • MLA International Bibliography
  • SCOPUS
  • Social Science Citation Index
  • LinguisList

 

2022  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
56
Journal Impact Factor 0.5
Rank by Impact Factor

Linguistics (Q4)

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0.4
5 Year
Impact Factor
0.5
Journal Citation Indicator 0.59
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Language and Linguistics (Q2)
Linguistics (Q3)

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
13
Scimago
Journal Rank
0.592
Scimago Quartile Score

Cultural Studies (Q1)
Linguistics and Language (Q1)
Literature and Literary Theory (Q1)

Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1.4
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Literature and Literary Theory 24/982 (97th PCTL)
Cultural Studies 212/1203 (82nd PCTL)
Scopus
SNIP
1.159

2021  
Web of Science  
Total Cites
WoS
63
Journal Impact Factor 0,690
Rank by Impact Factor

Linguistics 145/194

Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,667
5 Year
Impact Factor
1,286
Journal Citation Indicator 0,67
Rank by Journal Citation Indicator

Language & Linguistics 141/370

Scimago  
Scimago
H-index
11
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,341
Scimago Quartile Score Cultural Studies (Q1)
Linguistics and Language (Q1)
Literature and Literary Theory (Q1)
Scopus  
Scopus
Cite Score
1,4
Scopus
CIte Score Rank
Literature and Literary Theory 22/934 (D1)
Cultural Studies 164/1127 (Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
1,070

2020

 

Total Cites

219

WoS

Journal
Impact Factor

0,523

Rank by

Linguistics 150/193 (Q4)

Impact Factor

 

Impact Factor

0,432

without

Journal Self Cites

5 Year

0,500

Impact Factor

Journal 

0,72

Citation Indicator

 

Rank by Journal 

Linguistics 144/259 (Q3)

Citation Indicator 

 

Citable

19

Items

Total

19

Articles

Total

0

Reviews

Scimago

10

H-index

Scimago

0,295

Journal Rank

Scimago

Cultural Studies Q1

Quartile Score

Language and Linguistics Q2

 

Linguistics and Language Q2

 

Literature and Literary Theory Q1

Scopus

72/87=0,8

Scite Score

Scopus

Literature and Literary Theory 42/825 (Q1)

Scite Score Rank

Cultural Studies 247/1037 (Q1)

Scopus

1,022

SNIP

Days from 

58

submission

to acceptance

Days from 

68

acceptance

to publication

Acceptance

51%

Rate

2019  
Total Cites
WoS
155
Impact Factor 0,222
Impact Factor
without
Journal Self Cites
0,156
5 Year
Impact Factor
0,322
Immediacy
Index
0,870
Citable
Items
23
Total
Articles
23
Total
Reviews
0
Cited
Half-Life
11,2
Citing
Half-Life
16,6
Eigenfactor
Score
0,00006
Article Influence
Score
0,056
% Articles
in
Citable Items
100,00
Normalized
Eigenfactor
0,00780
Average
IF
Percentile
9,358
Scimago
H-index
9
Scimago
Journal Rank
0,281
Scopus
Scite Score
53/85=0,6
Scopus
Scite Score Rank
Cultural Studies 293/1002 (Q2)
Literature and Literary Theory 60/823(Q1)
Scopus
SNIP
0,768
Acceptance
Rate
25%

 

Acta Linguistica Academica
Publication Model Hybrid
Submission Fee none
Article Processing Charge 900 EUR/article
Printed Color Illustrations 40 EUR (or 10 000 HUF) + VAT / piece
Regional discounts on country of the funding agency World Bank Lower-middle-income economies: 50%
World Bank Low-income economies: 100%
Further Discounts Editorial Board / Advisory Board members: 50%
Corresponding authors, affiliated to an EISZ member institution subscribing to the journal package of Akadémiai Kiadó: 100%
Subscription fee 2023 Online subsscription: 572 EUR / 696 USD
Print + online subscription: 656 EUR / 796 USD
Subscription Information Online subscribers are entitled access to all back issues published by Akadémiai Kiadó for each title for the duration of the subscription, as well as Online First content for the subscribed content.
Purchase per Title Individual articles are sold on the displayed price.

Acta Linguistica Academica
Language English
Size B5
Year of
Foundation
2017 (1951)
Volumes
per Year
1
Issues
per Year
4
Founder Magyar Tudományos Akadémia   
Founder's
Address
H-1051 Budapest, Hungary, Széchenyi István tér 9.
Publisher Akadémiai Kiadó
Publisher's
Address
H-1117 Budapest, Hungary 1516 Budapest, PO Box 245.
Responsible
Publisher
Chief Executive Officer, Akadémiai Kiadó
ISSN 2559-8201 (Print)
ISSN 2560-1016 (Online)