View More View Less
  • 1 University of Pannonia Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences POB 158 H-8200 Veszprém Hungary
  • 2 University of Pannonia MTA — PE Air Chemistry Research Group Veszprém Hungary
  • 3 Hungarian Geological Society Budapest Hungary
Restricted access

Lake Balaton is a large and shallow lake that is of great economic and cultural importance in landlocked Hungary. Even though the lake has been studied extensively in the last century from a large number of scientific aspects, the mineralogy of its sediments has not been fully explored. The mud at the bottom of the lake consists mostly of silt-sized grains of carbonate minerals with compositions between those of calcite (CaCO3) and dolomite CaMg (CO3)2. In order to understand the processes of carbonate precipitation and the influence of water budget fluctuations on the mineralogical character of the sediment, we used X-ray powder diffraction to analyze the changes of cell parameters of carbonate minerals in the upper half meter of the sediment. The major carbonate phase is Mg-calcite that shows a distinct reduction in cell parameters from west to east, reflecting an increase of its Mg-content, in parallel with a gradient of dissolved Mg/Ca ratio in the water. Intriguingly, dolomite, the other widespread carbonate phase in the sediment, also shows a change in cell parameters from west to east, with the deviations from values of stoichiometric dolomite being largest in the Eastern Basin of the lake. The similar pattern of cell parameter changes of Mg-calcite and dolomite suggests that ordered dolomite with slightly anomalous, Ca-rich composition also forms in the lake, probably by direct precipitation from the water. In contrast, protodolomite forms within the sediment through diagenetic processes. Based on our X-ray powder diffraction measurements, we propose a model of carbonate mineral formation and transformation in Lake Balaton. Since the Mg/Ca ratio of the water appears to be the major factor in controlling the compositions of carbonate minerals, and this ratio in turn is governed by the amount of water supply, the properties of the precipitating carbonate minerals are affected by the actual level of the lake water.

  • Bidló, G. 1960: Balatoni aragonit-kiválás (Formation of aragonite in Lake Balaton). — Földtani Közlöny, 90, pp. 224–225.

    Bidló G. , 'Balatoni aragonit-kiválás (Formation of aragonite in Lake Balaton) ' (1960 ) 90 Földtani Közlöny : 224 -225.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cserny, T. 1987: A Balaton aktuálgeológiai kutatásának eredményei (Results of actuogeological research into Lake Balaton). — In: Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése az 1985. Évről (Annual Report of the Hungarian Geological Institute of 1985). Hungarian Geological Institute, Budapest, pp. 343–365.

    Cserny T. , '', in Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése az 1985. Évről (Annual Report of the Hungarian Geological Institute of 1985) , (1987 ) -.

  • Cserny, T. 1997: Environmental geological research in the Lake Balaton region. — Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband, 110, pp. 137–144.

    Cserny T. , 'Environmental geological research in the Lake Balaton region ' (1997 ) 110 Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband : 137 -144.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cserny, T. 2002: A balatoni negyedidőszaki üledékek kutatási eredményei. (Results of an investigation into Quaternary lacustrine sediments in Lake Balaton). — Földtani Közlöny, 132, pp. 193–213.

    Cserny T. , 'A balatoni negyedidőszaki üledékek kutatási eredményei. (Results of an investigation into Quaternary lacustrine sediments in Lake Balaton) ' (2002 ) 132 Földtani Közlöny : 193 -213.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cserny, T., E. Nagy-Bodor 2000: Limnogeology of Lake Balaton (Hungary). — In: Gierlowski-Kordesch, E.H., K. R. Kelts (Eds): Lake Basins Through Space and Time. AAPG Studies in Geology, 46, pp. 605–618.

    Nagy-Bodor E. , '', in Lake Basins Through Space and Time , (2000 ) -.

  • Cserny, T., E. Nagy-Bodor, M. Hajós 1991: Contributions to the sedimentology and evolution history of Lake Balaton. — In: Pécsi, M., F. Schweitzer (Eds): Quaternary Environment in Hungary. Studies in Geography in Hungary, 26, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, pp. 75–84.

    Hajós M. , '', in Quaternary Environment in Hungary , (1991 ) -.

  • Cserny, T., E. Hertelendi, S. Tarján 1995: Results of isotope-geochemical studies in the sedimentological and environmental geologic investigations of Lake Balaton. — Acta Geologica Hungarica, 38, pp. 355–376.

    Tarján S. , 'Results of isotope-geochemical studies in the sedimentological and environmental geologic investigations of Lake Balaton ' (1995 ) 38 Acta Geologica Hungarica : 355 -376.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Cserny, T., M. Földvári, K. Ikrényi, E. Nagy-Bodor, M. Hajós, A. Szuromi-Korecz, L. Wojnárovits 1991: A Balaton aljzatába mélyített Tó-24. sz. fúrás földtani vizsgálatának eredményei (Results of a geological study of drillcore No. Tó-24, obtained from the bottom sediments of Lake Balaton). — In: Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése az 1989. Évről (Annual Report of the Hungarian Geological Institute of 1989). Hungarian Geological Institute, Budapest, pp. 177–239.

    Wojnárovits L. , '', in Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése az 1989. Évről , (1991 ) -.

  • Dittrich, M., M. Obst 2004: Are picoplankton responsible for calcite precipitation in lakes? — Ambio, 33, pp. 559–564.

    Obst M. , 'Are picoplankton responsible for calcite precipitation in lakes ' (2004 ) 33 Ambio : 559 -564.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Effenberger, H., K. Mereiter, J. Zemann 1981: Crystal structure refinements of magnesite, rhodochrosite, siderite, smithsonite, and dolomite, with discussion of some aspects of the stereochemistry of calcite type carbonates. — Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 156, pp. 233–243.

    Zemann J. , 'Crystal structure refinements of magnesite, rhodochrosite, siderite, smithsonite, and dolomite, with discussion of some aspects of the stereochemistry of calcite type carbonates ' (1981 ) 156 Zeitschrift für Kristallographie : 233 -243.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • G.-Tóth, L. 1992: Limiting effect of abioseston on food ingestion, postembryonic development time and fecundity of daphnids in Lake Balaton (Hungary). — Journal of Plankton Research, 14, pp. 435–446.

    G.-Tóth L. , 'Limiting effect of abioseston on food ingestion, postembryonic development time and fecundity of daphnids in Lake Balaton (Hungary) ' (1992 ) 14 Journal of Plankton Research : 435 -446.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • G.-Tóth, L., N.P. Zánkai 1985: Feeding of Cyclops vicinus (Uljanin) (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in Lake Balaton on the basis of gut content analyses. — Hydrobiologia, 122, pp. 251–260.

    Zánkai N.P. , 'Feeding of Cyclops vicinus (Uljanin) (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in Lake Balaton on the basis of gut content analyses ' (1985 ) 122 Hydrobiologia : 251 -260.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gácser, V., Á. Molnár 2013: Időjárási szélsőségek és hatásaik Magyarországon (Weather extremes and their effects in Hungary). — University of Pannonia, unpublished manuscript, 28 pp.

    Molnár , '', in Időjárási szélsőségek és hatásaik Magyarországon , (2013 ) -.

  • Gaines, A.M. 1977: Protodolomite redefined. — Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 47, pp. 543–546.

    Gaines A.M. , 'Protodolomite redefined ' (1977 ) 47 Journal of Sedimentary Petrology : 543 -546.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Gierlowski-Kordesch, E.H. 2010: Lacustrine carbonates. — Developments in Sedimentology, 61, pp. 1–101.

    Gierlowski-Kordesch E.H. , 'Lacustrine carbonates ' (2010 ) 61 Developments in Sedimentology : 1 -101.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Goldsmith, J.R., D.L. Graf 1958: Relation between lattice constants and composition of the Ca-Mg carbonates. — American Mineralogist, 43, pp. 84–101.

    Graf D.L. , 'Relation between lattice constants and composition of the Ca-Mg carbonates ' (1958 ) 43 American Mineralogist : 84 -101.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haas, J., T. Budai, B. Raucsik 2012: Climatic controls on sedimentary environments in the Triassic of the Transdanubian Range (Western Hungary). — Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 353, pp. 31–44.

    Raucsik B. , 'Climatic controls on sedimentary environments in the Triassic of the Transdanubian Range (Western Hungary) ' (2012 ) 353 Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology : 31 -44.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Haas, J., T. Budai, O. Győri, S. Kele 2014: Similarities and differences in the dolomitization history of two coeval Middle Triassic carbonate platforms, Balaton Highland, Hungary. — Facies, 60, pp. 581–602.

    Kele S. , 'Similarities and differences in the dolomitization history of two coeval Middle Triassic carbonate platforms, Balaton Highland, Hungary ' (2014 ) 60 Facies : 581 -602.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hartley, A.M., W.A. House, M.E. Callow, B.S.C. Leadbitter 1997: Coprecipitation of phosphate with calcite in the presence of photosynthesising green algae. — Water Research, 31, pp. 2261–2268.

    Leadbitter B.S.C. , 'Coprecipitation of phosphate with calcite in the presence of photosynthesising green algae ' (1997 ) 31 Water Research : 2261 -2268.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Herodek, S., V. Istvánovics 1986: Mobility of phosphorus fractions in the sediments of Lake Balaton. — Hydrobiologia, 135, pp. 149–154.

    Istvánovics V. , 'Mobility of phosphorus fractions in the sediments of Lake Balaton ' (1986 ) 135 Hydrobiologia : 149 -154.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Hlavay, J., K. Polyák 2002: Investigation on the pollution sources of bottom sediments in the Lake Balaton. — Microchemical Journal, 73, pp. 65–78.

    Polyák K. , 'Investigation on the pollution sources of bottom sediments in the Lake Balaton ' (2002 ) 73 Microchemical Journal : 65 -78.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Istvánovics, V., S. Herodek, F. Szilágyi 1989: Phosphate adsorption by different sediment fractions in Lake Balaton and its protecting reservoirs. — Water Research, 23, pp. 1357–1366.

    Szilágyi F. , 'Phosphate adsorption by different sediment fractions in Lake Balaton and its protecting reservoirs ' (1989 ) 23 Water Research : 1357 -1366.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Korponai, J., K.A. Varga, T. Lengré, I. Papp, A. Tóth, M. Braun 2011: Paleolimnological reconstruction of the trophic state in Lake Balaton (Hungary) using Cladocera remains. — Hydrobiologia, 676, pp. 237–248.

    Braun M. , 'Paleolimnological reconstruction of the trophic state in Lake Balaton (Hungary) using Cladocera remains ' (2011 ) 676 Hydrobiologia : 237 -248.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Land, L.S. 1998: Failure to precipitate dolomite at 25 °C from dilute solution despite 1000-fold oversaturation after 32 years. — Aquatic Geochemistry, 4, pp. 361–368.

    Land L.S. , 'Failure to precipitate dolomite at 25 °C from dilute solution despite 1000-fold oversaturation after 32 years ' (1998 ) 4 Aquatic Geochemistry : 361 -368.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Lóczy, L. 1913: A Balaton tudományos tanulmányozásának eredményei (Results of scientific investigations on Lake Balaton). — Magyar Királyi Földrajzi Társaság, 617 pp.

    Lóczy L. , '', in A Balaton tudományos tanulmányozásának eredményei , (1913 ) -.

  • Machel, H.G. 2004: Concepts and models of dolomitization: a critical reappraisal. — In: Braithwaite, C.J.R., G. Rizzi, G. Darke (Eds): The Geometry and Petrogenesis of Dolomite Hydrocarbon Reservoirs. The Geological Society, pp. 7–64.

    Machel H.G. , '', in The Geometry and Petrogenesis of Dolomite Hydrocarbon Reservoirs , (2004 ) -.

  • Máté, F. 1987: A Balaton-meder recens üledékeinek térképezése (Mapping of modern Lake Balaton bottom sediments). — In: Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése az 1985. Évről (Annual Report of the Hungarian Geological Institute of 1985). Hungarian Geological Institute, Budapest, pp. 367–379.

    Máté F. , '', in Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése az 1985. Évről , (1987 ) -.

  • Müller, G. 1970: High-magnesian calcite and protodolomite in Lake Balaton (Hungary) sediments. — Nature, 226, pp. 749–750.

    Müller G. , 'High-magnesian calcite and protodolomite in Lake Balaton (Hungary) sediments ' (1970 ) 226 Nature : 749 -750.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Müller, G., F. Wagner 1978: Holocene carbonate evolution in Lake Balaton (Hungary): A response to climate and impact of man. — In: Matter, A., M.E. Tucker (Eds): Modern and Ancient Lake Sediments. Special Publications of the International Association of Sedimentologists, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, London, Edinburgh, Melbourne, 2, pp. 57–81.

    Wagner F. , '', in Modern and Ancient Lake Sediments , (1978 ) -.

  • Polyák, K., J. Hlavay 2005: Development of a monitoring network on Lake Balaton, Hungary. — Microchemical Journal, 79, pp. 137–143.

    Hlavay J. , 'Development of a monitoring network on Lake Balaton, Hungary ' (2005 ) 79 Microchemical Journal : 137 -143.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Présing, M., S. Herodek, T. Preston, L. Vörös 2001: Nitrogen uptake and the importance of internal nitrogen loading in Lake Balaton. — Freshwater Biology, 46, pp. 125–139.

    Vörös L. , 'Nitrogen uptake and the importance of internal nitrogen loading in Lake Balaton ' (2001 ) 46 Freshwater Biology : 125 -139.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Reeder, R.J. 1992: Carbonates: Growth and alteration microstructures. — In: Buseck, P.R. (Ed.): Minerals and Reactions at the Atomic Scale: Transmission Electron Microscopy. Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, 27, pp. 381–425.

    Reeder R.J. , '', in Minerals and Reactions at the Atomic Scale: Transmission Electron Microscopy , (1992 ) -.

  • Reeder, R.J., C.E. Sheppard 1984: Variation of lattice-parameters in some sedimentary dolomites. — American Mineralogist, 69, pp. 520–527.

    Sheppard C.E. , 'Variation of lattice-parameters in some sedimentary dolomites ' (1984 ) 69 American Mineralogist : 520 -527.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Reeder, R.J., H.-R. Wenk 1983: Structure refinements of some thermally disordered dolomites. — American Mineralogist, 68, pp. 769–776.

    Wenk H.-R. , 'Structure refinements of some thermally disordered dolomites ' (1983 ) 68 American Mineralogist : 769 -776.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Ruiz-Agudo, E., C. Rodriguez-Navarro 2013: Carbonates under the TEM: an overview of recent research. — In: Nieto, F., K.J.T. Livi (Eds): Minerals at the Nanoscale. EMU Notes in Mineralogy, European Mineralogical Union and Mineralogical Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 14, pp. 338–374.

    Rodriguez-Navarro C. , '', in Minerals at the Nanoscale , (2013 ) -.

  • Schöll-Barna, G. 2011: An isotope mass balance model for the correlation of freshwater bivalve shell (Unio pictorum) carbonate d18O to climatic conditions and water d18O in Lake Balaton (Hungary). — Journal of Limnology, 70, pp. 272–282.

    Schöll-Barna G. , 'An isotope mass balance model for the correlation of freshwater bivalve shell (Unio pictorum) carbonate d18O to climatic conditions and water d18O in Lake Balaton (Hungary) ' (2011 ) 70 Journal of Limnology : 272 -282.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Schöll-Barna, G., A. Demény, G. Serlegi, S. Fábián, P. Sümegi, I. Fórizs, B. Bajnóczi 2012: Climatic variability in the Late Copper Age: Stable isotope fluctuation of prehistoric Unio pictorum (Unionidae) shells from Lake Balaton (Hungary). — Journal of Paleolimnology, 47, pp. 87–100.

    Bajnóczi B. , 'Climatic variability in the Late Copper Age: Stable isotope fluctuation of prehistoric Unio pictorum (Unionidae) shells from Lake Balaton (Hungary) ' (2012 ) 47 Journal of Paleolimnology : 87 -100.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Sibley, D.F., S.H. Nordeng, M.L. Borkowski 1994: Dolomitization kinetics in hydrothermal bombs and natural settings. — Journal of Sedimentary Research, 64A, pp. 630–637.

    Borkowski M.L. , 'Dolomitization kinetics in hydrothermal bombs and natural settings ' (1994 ) 64A Journal of Sedimentary Research : 630 -637.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Szilágyi, V., Z. Hartyáni, T. Horváth, B. Raucsik, J. Hlavay 2002: Balatoni befolyók üledékeinek vizsgálata röntgenanalitikai módszerekkel (Investigation on the elements of sediments by X-ray methods). — Magyar Kémiai Folyóirat, 108, pp. 401–408.

    Hlavay J. , 'Balatoni befolyók üledékeinek vizsgálata röntgenanalitikai módszerekkel (Investigation on the elements of sediments by X-ray methods) ' (2002 ) 108 Magyar Kémiai Folyóirat : 401 -408.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Talbot, M.R. 1990: A review of the palaeohydrological interpretation of carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios in primary lacustrine carbonates. — Chemical Geology, 80, pp. 261–279.

    Talbot M.R. , 'A review of the palaeohydrological interpretation of carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios in primary lacustrine carbonates ' (1990 ) 80 Chemical Geology : 261 -279.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Tullner, T. 2002: A Balaton vízszintváltozásai földtudományi adatbázisának térinformatikai feldolgozása tükrében (Changes in the water level of Lake Balaton on the basis of GIS processing of its geoscientific database). — PhD Thesis, Eötvös Loránd University, 142 pp.

    Tullner T. , '', in A Balaton vízszintváltozásai földtudományi adatbázisának térinformatikai feldolgozása tükrében (Changes in the water level of Lake Balaton on the basis of GIS processing of its geoscientific database) , (2002 ) -.

  • Tullner, T., T. Cserny 2003: New aspects of lake-level changes: Lake Balaton, Hungary. — Acta Geologica Hungarica, 46, pp. 215–238.

    Cserny T. , 'New aspects of lake-level changes: Lake Balaton, Hungary ' (2003 ) 46 Acta Geologica Hungarica : 215 -238.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Turpin, M., F.H. Nader, E. Kohler 2012: Empirical calibration for dolomite stoichiometry calculation: Application on Triassic Muschelkalk-Lettenkohle carbonates (French Jura). — Oil and Gas Science and Technology, 67, pp. 77–95.

    Kohler E. , 'Empirical calibration for dolomite stoichiometry calculation: Application on Triassic Muschelkalk-Lettenkohle carbonates (French Jura) ' (2012 ) 67 Oil and Gas Science and Technology : 77 -95.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Wenk, H.-R., D.J. Barber, R.J. Reeder 1983: Microstructures in carbonates. — In: Reeder, R.J. (Ed.): Carbonates: Mineralogy and Chemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, 11, pp. 301–367.

    Reeder R.J. , 'Microstructures in carbonates ' (1983 ) 11 Carbonates: Mineralogy and Chemistry : 301 -367.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zhang, F., H. Xu, H. Konishi, E.E. Roden 2010: A relationship between d 104 value and composition in the calcite-disordered dolomite solid-solution series. — American Mineralogist, 95, pp. 1650–1656.

    Roden E.E. , 'A relationship between d 104 value and composition in the calcite-disordered dolomite solid-solution series ' (2010 ) 95 American Mineralogist : 1650 -1656.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Zlinszky, A., G. Timár 2013: Historic maps as a data source for socio-hydrology: A case study of the Lake Balaton wetland system, Hungary. — Hydrology & Earth System Sciences, 17, pp. 4589–4606.

    Timár G. , 'Historic maps as a data source for socio-hydrology: A case study of the Lake Balaton wetland system, Hungary ' (2013 ) 17 Hydrology & Earth System Sciences : 4589 -4606.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Nov 2020 16 6 4
Dec 2020 12 0 0
Jan 2021 12 0 0
Feb 2021 16 0 0
Mar 2021 11 0 0
Apr 2021 8 1 2
May 2021 0 0 0