View More View Less
  • 1 University of Sofia “St. Kliment Ohridski” Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy 1, James Bourchier Blvd. Sofia 1164 Bulgaria
Restricted access

This paper deals with the influence of sharp temperature variations on the geochemical fractionation and bioavailability of 241Am, 60Co and 137Cs in Fluvisol soil. The study was performed using soil contaminated with aqueous solutions of 241Am, 60Co and 137Cs in the laboratory and stored for three years at temperatures within the range of 10–18 ºC and soil moisture from 20 to 30 wt %. Afterward the soil was divided into three equal parts and conditioned for one month at 10–18 ºC, −18 ºC and 40 ºC temperature regimes, respectively. The impact of the storage conditions on geochemical forms of the radionuclides was investigated using single extraction of exchangeable 137Cs with 1 M NH4NO3 and sequential extraction of 241Am and 60Co, and by gamma-spectrometric measurement. The influence of temperature rise up to 40 ºC over a period of one month on the transfer factors (TFs) of the radionuclides from the investigated soil to orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was evaluated. The results showed that deep freezing and a sharp temperature increase continuing for one month led to re-distribution of 241Amand 60Co between the soil phases and provoked an increase of the exchangeable 137Cs. Freezing led to a decrease of 241Am in the residual fraction and an increase of oxide-bound americium. The storage at frozen conditions led to decrease of oxide bounded 60Co and increased immobilization in the residual fraction. Conditioning at high temperature increased the migration ability of 241Amand 137Cs, while immobilization of 60Co was registered. Conditioning at a sharp temperature increase before the growing season led to higher values of the TFs of all the studied radionuclides. This effect was highest for 137Cs. The sharp temperature change of contaminated Fluvisol soil lasting one month was found to create a risk of increased migration and bioaccumulation of radionuclides.

  • Davidson, C.M., A.L. Duncan, D. Littlejohn, A.M. Ure, L.M. Garden 1998: A critical evaluation of the three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure to assess the potential mobility and toxicity of heavy metals in industrially-contaminated land. — Analytica Chimica Acta, 363, pp. 45–55.

    Garden L.M. , 'A critical evaluation of the three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure to assess the potential mobility and toxicity of heavy metals in industrially-contaminated land ' (1998 ) 363 Analytica Chimica Acta : 45 -55.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Dowdall, M., W. Standring, G. Shaw, P. Strand 2008: Will global warming affect soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides? — Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 99, pp. 1736–1745.

    Strand P. , 'Will global warming affect soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides ' (2008 ) 99 Journal of Environmental Monitoring : 1736 -1745.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • FAO 2006: World Reference Base for Soil Resources. A Framework for International Classification Correlation and Communication. World Soil Resources Report 103. — Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 128 pp.

    '', in World Reference Base for Soil Resources. A Framework for International Classification Correlation and Communication. World Soil Resources Report 103. — Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome , (2006 ) -.

  • Feng, X.D., Z. Dang, W.L. Huang, C. Yang 2009: Chemical speciation of fine particle bound trace metals. — International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 6, 337–346.

    Yang C. , 'Chemical speciation of fine particle bound trace metals ' (2009 ) 6 International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology : 337 -346.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • IAEA 2006: Classification of Soil Systems on the Basis of Transfer Factors on Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants. — International Atomic Energy Agency. IAEA-TECDOC-1497, Vienna, 250 pp.

    '', in Classification of Soil Systems on the Basis of Transfer Factors on Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants , (2006 ) -.

  • IAEA 2010: Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments. — International Atomic Energy Agency. Technical Reports Series No. 472, Vienna, 194 pp.

    '', in Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments , (2010 ) -.

  • Kabata-Pendias, A., H. Pendias 2001: Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. Third ed. — CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL — London — New York — Washington, D.C., 403 pp.

    Pendias H. , '', in Trace Elements in Soils and Plants , (2001 ) -.

  • Kovacheva, P., R. Djingova 2014: Influence of freezing on physicochemical forms of natural and technogenic radionuclides in Chernozem soil. — Chemical Papers, 68, pp. 714–718.

    Djingova R. , 'Influence of freezing on physicochemical forms of natural and technogenic radionuclides in Chernozem soil ' (2014 ) 68 Chemical Papers : 714 -718.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kovacheva, P., S. Mitsiev, R. Djingova 2014: Physicochemical fractionation of Americium, Thorium and Uranium in Chernozem soil after sharp temperature change and soil drought. — Chemical Papers, 68, pp. 336–341.

    Djingova R. , 'Physicochemical fractionation of Americium, Thorium and Uranium in Chernozem soil after sharp temperature change and soil drought ' (2014 ) 68 Chemical Papers : 336 -341.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Kovacheva, P., D. Yovkova, B. Todorov, R. Djingova 2013: Effects of freezing and soil drought on the geochemical fractionation of americium in Fluvisol and Cambisol soils from Bulgaria. — Central European Geology, 56, pp. 1–12.

    Djingova R. , 'Effects of freezing and soil drought on the geochemical fractionation of americium in Fluvisol and Cambisol soils from Bulgaria ' (2013 ) 56 Central European Geology : 1 -12.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Marion, G.M. 1995: Freeze-thaw Processes and Soil Chemistry. Special report 95–12. — U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 23 pp.

    Marion G.M. , '', in Freeze-thaw Processes and Soil Chemistry. Special report 95–12 , (1995 ) -.

  • Schultz, M.K., W.C. Burnett, K.G.W. Inn 1998: Evaluation of a sequential extraction method for determining actinide fractionation in soils and sediments. — Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 40, pp. 155–174.

    Inn K.G.W. , 'Evaluation of a sequential extraction method for determining actinide fractionation in soils and sediments ' (1998 ) 40 Journal of Environmental Radioactivity : 155 -174.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Todorov, B., G. Pekov, R. Djingova 2008: Fractionations of 137Cs and 60Co in soils by sequential extractions. — Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 278, pp. 9–15.

    Djingova R. , 'Fractionations of 137Cs and 60Co in soils by sequential extractions ' (2008 ) 278 Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry : 9 -15.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Twining, J., P. Shotton, K. Tagami, T. Payne, T. Itakura, R. Russel, K. Wilde, G. McOrist, H. Wong 2006: Transfer of radioactive caesium, strontium and zinc from soil to sorghum and mung beans under field conditions in tropical northern Australia. — In: International Atomic Energy Agency: Classification of Soil Systems on the Basis of Transfer Factors on Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants. — IAEA-TECDOC-1497, pp. 21–38.

    Wong H. , '', in International Atomic Energy Agency: Classification of Soil Systems on the Basis of Transfer Factors on Radionuclides from Soil to Reference Plants , (2006 ) -.

  • Ure, A.M., P.H. Quevauviller, H. Muntau, B. Griepink 1993: Speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments. An account of the improvement and harmonization of extraction techniques undertaken under the auspices of the BCR of the Commission of European Communities. — International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 51, pp. 135–151.

    Griepink B. , 'Speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments. An account of the improvement and harmonization of extraction techniques undertaken under the auspices of the BCR of the Commission of European Communities ' (1993 ) 51 International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry : 135 -151.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Usero, J., M. Gamero, J. Morillo, I. Gracia 1998: Comparative study of three sequential extraction procedures for metals in marine sediments. — Environment International, 24, pp. 487–496

    Gracia I. , 'Comparative study of three sequential extraction procedures for metals in marine sediments ' (1998 ) 24 Environment International : 487 -496.

    • Search Google Scholar

Monthly Content Usage

Abstract Views Full Text Views PDF Downloads
Sep 2020 2 1 1
Oct 2020 2 0 0
Nov 2020 5 4 0
Dec 2020 0 0 0
Jan 2021 2 0 0
Feb 2021 6 0 0
Mar 2021 0 0 0