Wetland model is the most popular method from the ′80s to calculate the wetland area designing of subsurface flow constructed wetlands. This is a statistical first-order plug flow model that is used widely in environmental and chemical engineering sciences. In case of Hungarian application of this model is necessary to know the K (m/d) values (area removal rate constant). However, this value depends on many factors especially local weather conditions and wastewater quality can varies within a wide range. The operational characteristics of the subsurface flow constructed wetlands depend very much on this parameter. Because of that it is very important to calculate this designing parameter for Hungarian circumstances. In spite of this model is used in many countries in the world this parameter values have not been calculated to Hungarian experiences before.There are 8 subsurface flow wetlands in Hungary that have enough detailed data to analysis. From these constructed wetlands the K-values were calculated for biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, ammonium-nitrogen, total phosphorus. The Hungarian values are compared with the international ones, and the uncertainties of the results are analyzed too.
MASZESZ MI-I-1,2003, Natural wastewater treatment systems, building and operation of vertical flow constructed wetlands, (in Hungarian) MASZESZ Műszaki Irányelv, 2003.
Kichkuth R. Degradation and incorporation of nutrients from rural wastewater by plant rhizosphere under limnic conditions, In Utilization of manure by land spreading, London, UK, Commission of the E.C. 1977, pp. 335–343.
Dittrich E. Experiences on hydraulic performance of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands, Pollack Periodica, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2006, pp. 53–66.
Dittrich E., 'Experiences on hydraulic performance of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands' (2006) 1Pollack Periodica: 53-66.
Dittrich E.Experiences on hydraulic performance of sub-surface flow constructed wetlandsPollack Periodica200615366)| false
Kadlec R. H., Kinght R.,L., Vymazal J., Brix H., Cooper P., Haberl R. Constructed wetlands for pollution control, processes, performances, design and operation, IWA Specialist Group on Use of Macrophytes in Water Pollution Control, IWA Publishing, London, UK, 2000.
Rousseau D. P. L., Vanrolleghem P. A., Pauw N. D. Model-based design of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treatment wetlands, a review, Water Research, Vol. 38, 2004, pp. 1484–1493.
Pauw N. D., 'Model-based design of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treatment wetlands, a review' (2004) 38Water Research: 1484-1493.
Pauw N. D.Model-based design of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treatment wetlands, a reviewWater Research20043814841493)| false
Reed S.C., Sherwood C., Crites R.W., Ronald W., Middlebrooks E. J. Natural systems for waste management and treatment, 2nd Ed, McGraw-Hill, Inc, New York, 1995.
Middlebrooks E. J., '', in Natural systems for waste management and treatment, (1995) -.
Middlebrooks E. J.Natural systems for waste management and treatment1995)| false
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Design manual, Constructed wetlands and aquatic plant systems for municipal wastewater treatment, Rep. No. EPA 625/1-88/022, USEPA Office for Environmental Research Information, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1988.
Kadlec R. H., Knight R. L. Treatment wetlands, Lewis Publishers, Baca Raton, Fla, 1996.
Knight R. L., '', in Treatment wetlands, (1996) -.
Knight R. L.Treatment wetlands1996)| false
Dittrich E. Analysis of operational experiences of Hungarian subsurface flow constructed wetlands with wetland-model, (in Hungarian) MHT XXVII. Országos vándorgyűlés konferencia kiadványa, 1–3 Juy 2009,
, last visited 15 Augustus 2011
Laber J., Haberl R,. Shrestha R. R., Two-stage constructed wetland for treating hospital wastewater in Nepal, Wat. Sci. Tech. Vol. 40, No. 3, 1999, pp. 317–324.
Shrestha R. R., 'Two-stage constructed wetland for treating hospital wastewater in Nepal' (1999) 40Wat. Sci. Tech.: 317-324.
Shrestha R. R.Two-stage constructed wetland for treating hospital wastewater in NepalWat. Sci. Tech.199940317324)| false
Somlyódy L. Review of extensive wastewater treatment technologies, (in Hungarian) Scientific Research Report, Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economic, Budapest, 2002.
Vízügyi Hivatal Műszaki Irányelvek, Municipal wastewater treatment plants: Mechanical treatment, (in Hungarian), MI-10-127/4-1984.
Schierup, H.H., Brix, H., Lorenzen, J.: Wastewater treatment in constructed reed beds in Denmark, — State of the Art, In Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control, Ed. by P. F. Cooper, B. C. Findlater, Pregamon Press, Oxford, 24–28 September 1990, pp. 495–504.
Lorenzen J., '', in Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control, (1990) -.
Lorenzen J.Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control1990)| false
Brix H. Function of macrophytes in constructed wetland, Water Sci. and Techn. Vol. 29, No. 4, 1994, pp. 71–78.
Brix H., 'Function of macrophytes in constructed wetland' (1994) 29Water Sci. and Techn: 71-78.
Brix H.Function of macrophytes in constructed wetlandWater Sci. and Techn1994297178)| false