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  • 1 Csolnoky Ferenc Megyei Kórház I. Belgyógyászati Osztály Veszprém Kórház u. 1. 8200
  • 2 Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar I. Belgyógyászati Klinika Budapest
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A colitis ulcerosa kezelésében kevesebb a változás, mint a Crohn-betegségben. A betegek nagy többsége ma is a hagyományos gyógyszereket kapja. A kezelést meghatározó legfontosabb tényezők a betegség kiterjedése és súlyossága. Az enyhe és középsúlyos colitis ulcerosa kezelésének a legfontosabb szerei az aminoszalicilátok. Az új 5-aminoszalicilátok terápiás hatékonysága nem jobb, mint a sulfasalaziné, de kevesebb mellékhatásuk miatt előtérbe került az alkalmazásuk. Proctitisben és distalis colitisben a helyileg alkalmazott készítmények hatásosabbak, mint az orális szerek, de a kiterjedt colitis gyógyulását is javítja a kombinált lokális és orális kezelés. A súlyos, akut colitis ulcerosa kezelésében továbbra is meghatározóak a kortikoszteroidok, a nem reagáló esetekben a cyclosporin vagy az infliximab lehet a colectomia alternatívája. Colitis ulcerosában csaknem minden esetben indokolt a fenntartó kezelés. Valamennyi aminoszalicilát alkalmas a remisszió fenntartására. Továbbra sem tisztázott az optimális aminoszalicilát-dózis kérdése. A distalis colitis remisszióban tartásában leghatékonyabbak a lokális szerek, amennyiben a beteg ezt a kezelést elfogadja. Krónikusan aktív, szteroidra rezisztens vagy szteroidfüggő betegségben immunszuppresszív szerektől, elsősorban azathioprintól várhatunk eredményt. Az utóbbi évek felmérései szerint colitis ulcerosában az azathioprin legalább olyan hatékony, mint Crohn-betegségben. A fenntartó kezelésben fontos szempont a kemoprevenció. Mind több adat bizonyítja, hogy az aminoszalicilátok csökkentik a colitis ulcerosában fokozott colorectalis rák kialakulásának kockázatát. A legfontosabb változások a colitis ulcerosa kezelésében az utóbbi években a lokális aminoszalicilátok és az azathioprin előtérbe kerülése, az infliximab alkalmazása súlyos colitisben, valamint a karcinóma-kemoprevenció általánossá válása. Nagyobb figyelmet kell fordítani a beteg együttműködésének a megnyerésére, az előírások betartására.

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