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  • 1 MTA-SE Gyermekgyógyászati és Nephrológiai Kutatócsoport Budapest Bókay u. 53–54. 1083
  • 2 Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar II. Belgyógyászati Klinika Budapest
  • 3 MTA-SE Molekuláris Medicina Kutatócsoport Budapest
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Az RNS-interferencia a poszttranszkripciós génelcsendesítés olyan formája, amelynek során rövid, specifikusan RNS-molekulák elnyomják a gének kifejeződésében kulcsszerepet játszó hírvivő RNS-ek működését. A sejtbe juttatott dupla szálú vagy rövid interferáló RNS-molekulák aktiválják az RNS-indukált elcsendesítő komplexet, amely a célgén hírvivő RNS-ét lebontja. A sejtek saját szabályozó mikro-RNS-molekulákkal is rendelkeznek, amelyeknek hírvivő RNS-e képes önmagával hajtűt képezni, amit a sejt dupla szálú RNS-ként értelmez. Az RNS-interferencia élettani működései közé tartozik a vírusok és a transzpozonok elleni védekezés, valamint a génkifejeződés szabályozása. Az RNS-interferencia nemcsak in vitro alkalmazható az egyes gének működésének vizsgálatára, hanem klinikai alkalmazásainak lehetőségei is megjelentek. Eddig vírusfertőzésekben, az időskori makuladegeneráció gátlására, a vér koleszterinszint-csökkentésére, daganatellenes és neurodegeneratív betegségek kezelésében alkalmazták. Az RNS-interferencia alkalmazását azonban nehezíti, hogy a megfelelő rövid interferáló RNS-molekulák tervezéséhez szükséges bioinformatikai algoritmusok nem tökéletesek; a szervezet szöveteibe való bejuttatásuk nehéz; illetve csak olyan esetekben alkalmazható, amelyekben átmeneti antagonista génelcsendesítő hatás és nem hosszú távú kezelés szükséges. Az alkalmazás legnagyobb előnye a jelentős specificitás, ami miatt mellékhatása is kevés. Az RNS-interferencia alapú kezelések megjelenése már a közeli jövőben várható.

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