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  • 1 Boston University Department of Molecular and Cell Biology Boston USA
  • 2 Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar I. Belgyógyászati Klinika Szeged
  • 3 Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Orvosi Vegytani, Molekuláris Biológiai és Patobiokémiai Intézet Budapest Puskin u. 9. 1088
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A hasnyálmirigy idült gyulladásos megbetegedését a mirigyszövet pusztulása, emésztési zavarok, krónikus fájdalom jellemzi, és cukorbetegség kísérheti. A betegséggel kapcsolatos genetikai tényezőket két csoportra oszthatjuk: 1. olyan génmutációk, amelyek önmagukban a betegség kialakulásához vezetnek, ezek elsősorban a kationos tripszinogén génjét érintik és igen ritkák, illetve 2. olyan génmutációk, amelyek hajlamosítanak a betegség kialakulására és egyéb kockázati tényezőkkel együtt okozzák a betegséget. Ezek tehát genetikai rizikófaktoroknak tekinthetők. Ilyen génmutációkat az utóbbi 10 évben ismertünk meg, előfordulásuk gyakori, ezért etiológiai jelentőségük is nagy. Az esetek többségében komplex módon öröklődnek, a betegek egyszerre több génben is hordozhatnak különböző mértékű kockázatot jelentő mutációt, és ezek hatásukban összeadódva, környezeti tényezőkkel társulva vezetnek a betegség kialakulásához. A mutációk okozta genetikai hajlam biokémiai hátterében a tripszin pancreason belüli fokozott ectopiás aktiválódása, illetve a tripszininaktiválásért felelős védőmechanizmusok elégtelen működése állhat.

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