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  • 1 Országos Vérellátó Szolgálat Őssejt-biológia Budapest Diószegi út 64. 1113
  • 2 Semmelweis Egyetem, Egészségügyi Főiskolai Kar Morfológiai és Fiziológiai Intézet Budapest
  • 3 Budai Irgalmasrendi Kórház Reumatológiai Osztály Budapest
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A mesenchymalis őssejteket (MSC-ket) már számos szövettípusból sikeresen izolálták. Ezek a sejtek terápiás felhasználás szempontjából különösen ígéretesnek tűnnek a felnőtt szöveti őssejtek közül, mivel könnyen izolálhatók, és viszonylag egyszerű a fenntartásuk és szaporításuk in vitro, valamint képesek számos sejttípussá, többek között csont-, porc-, ín-, izom- és zsírsejtekké alakulni. A szervezetben ezek a sejtek biztosítják azokat a növekedési faktorokat és cytokineket, amelyek a vérképző sejtek osztódását és differenciálódását szabályozzák. In vivo képesek lehetnek sérült szövetek regenerálására a vesében, szívben, májban, hasnyálmirigyben és az emésztőrendszerben. Emellett az MSC-k immunmoduláló és gyulladáscsökkentő hatással is rendelkeznek, és allogén szervezetben is csak minimális immunválaszt váltanak ki. Bár a folyamat háttere még nem teljesen ismert, az e sejtek immunszuppresszív hatásán alapuló módszerek már a klinikai kipróbálás fázisában vannak, és lehetséges, hogy a jövőben az MSC-k segítségével allograft-kilökődés, graft versus host betegség, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmun eredetű ízületi gyulladás és más olyan betegségek lesznek kezelhetők, amelyek esetében immunszuppresszió és szöveti regeneráció is szükséges. A jelen összefoglaló célja a mesenchymalis őssejtekről szóló irodalom áttekintése, különös tekintettel azok immunmoduláló tulajdonságaira és jövőbeli lehetséges klinikai felhasználására.

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