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  • 1 Országos Élelmezés- és Táplálkozástudományi Intézet Budapest Gyáli út 3/A 1097
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A növényi szterinek csaknem valamennyi növényfélében fellelhető, izoprén vegyületcsoportba tartozó bioaktív hatóanyagok. A leggyakrabban előforduló vegyületek a β-szitoszterin, a kampeszterin és a sztigmaszterin. A legfőbb fitoszterinforrások a növényi magvak, növényi olajok, dió- és gabonafélék, hüvelyesek. Kontrollált klinikai vizsgálatokban igazolták, hogy napi rendszeres 2-3 g fitoszterin/fitosztanol fogyasztás 7–11%-kal csökkenti az LDL-koleszterin-szintet, miközben a HDL- és a TG-szint nem változik normo- és hypercholesterinaemiában. A napi 3 g-nál nagyobb mennyiség nem eredményez fokozottabb hatást. Ugyancsak klinikai vizsgálatokban igazolták, hogy még napi 8,6 g rendszeres fogyasztása is biztonságos a fogyasztók számára. Az irodalomban leírt kedvezőtlen hatás a szokásosnál nagyobb fitoszterinbevitel esetén a szérum csökkent karotinoidszintje, amely rendszeres, napi ötszöri zöldség- és gyümölcsfogyasztással megelőzhető. Az igen ritka, öröklődő, genetikai rendellenességben, úgynevezett sitosterinaemiában szenvedő egyének számára pedig nem ajánlott fitoszterinekkel dúsított élelmiszerek fogyasztása. Tekintve, hogy a hagyományos étrenddel nem vehető fel a szignifikáns hatás eléréséhez szükséges mennyiségű fitoszterin, az Európai Unió az új élelmiszerekre vonatkozó 258/97/EK rendeletben leírt engedélyezési eljárást követően számos élelmiszertípusban jóváhagyta a napi 3 g-nál nem több fitoszterinbevitelt eredményező dúsítást. Az Európai Élelmiszer-biztonsági Hatóság (EFSA) a saját felmérése, valamint az egyes tagállamokban elvégzett elemzések alapján megállapította, hogy az Európai Közösség lakosságának 10-15%-a tekinthető a fitoszterinekkel dúsított élelmiszerek rendszeres fogyasztójának. Ennek alapján kicsi a kockázata a fitoszterinek túlzott bevitelének, inkább az jellemző, hogy a fogyasztók kevesebbet fogyasztanak, mint a hatásos dózis. Az EFSA ugyancsak megállapította – a rendelkezésre álló tudományos információk birtokában –, hogy a fitoszterinekkel/fitosztanolokkal dúsított élelmiszerek rendszeres fogyasztása és a szérumkoleszterin-szint csökkenése között egyértelmű és bizonyított az összefüggés. Ennek megfelelően ez lesz az első élelmiszercsoport, amely a 2007-ben életbe lépett, az élelmiszereken megjeleníthető tápanyag-összetételre és egészségre vonatkozó állításokról szóló 1924/2006/EK jogszabály alapján olyan, a betegség kockázatának csökkentésére vonatkozó állítást viselhet, amely a fogyasztó felé azt kommunikálja: „A növényi szterinek/sztanolészterek kimutathatóan csökkentik a vér koleszterinszintjét. A vér koleszterinszintjének csökkenése mérsékelheti a coronariás szívbetegségek kockázatát.”

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